Permafrost thaw in the Arctic and sand extraction in Greenland – new articles from Nordregio researchers
Senior Research Fellow Leneisja Jungsberg and Research Fellow Justine Ramage have published an article examining permafrost perceptions in three Arctic communities. Jungsberg has also written a comment for a study examining opportunistic climate adaption in Greenland. The article ‘No longer solid’: perceived impacts of permafrost thaw in three Arctic communities, published in Polar Geography, is written by Nordregio researchers Dr. Justine Ramage and Dr. Leneisja Jungsberg. The article examines local communities’ perceptions of permafrost change. The study, carried out between 2019 and 2020 in Aklavik (Northwest Territories, Canada), Longyearbyen (Svalbard, Norway), and Qeqertarsuaq (Qeqertalik Municipality, Greenland), shows that the majority of the 237 participants are well aware of the consequences of permafrost thaw on the landscape as well as the connection between increased air temperature and permafrost thaw. – Permafrost thaw is perceived as a major cause for challenges in subsistence activities, infrastructure, and the physical environment. Different perceptions within the three study communities suggests that perceptions of thaw are not solely determined by physical changes but also influenced by factors related to the societal context, including discourses of climate change, cultural background, and land use, Dr. Jungsberg states. What do you think is interesting to point out for a broader audience? – Permafrost characterizes ground conditions in most of the Arctic and is increasingly thawing. While environmental consequences of permafrost thaw are under intense scrutiny by natural and life sciences, social sciences’ studies on local communities’ perceptions of change are thus far limited. This hinders the development of targeted adaptation and mitigation measures. Read the article here. What are the economic opportunities for glacially-derived sand extraction in Greenland? Senior Research Fellow Leneisja Jungsberg has also recently published Turning Greenland’s sand into gold – a comment for a study examining opportunistic climate adaptation in Greenland. With the warming climate an…
Climate Coffee with Dr. Jungsberg: How to manage permafrost thaw in Northwest Greenland
On the 2nd of June, Nordregio Senior Researcher Dr. Leneisja Jungsberg will participate in a Climate Coffee to share about her study examining the adaptive capacity for managing permafrost degradation in Northwest Greenland. The study focuses on three aspects: community awareness, institutional organisation, and scientific knowledge to inform decision-making. “Permafrost degradation is a big challenge for many Arctic communities. Results from this study illustrate the impact of permafrost degradation on the physical environment, hunting and harvesting, housing, and the economy in Northwest Greenland. House owners are mending damage caused by ground movement, and local institutions are concerned with the maintenance of roads and other public infrastructure impacted by permafrost,” says Dr. Jungsberg. The empirical material is informed by questionnaire and interview data from fieldwork, frozen ground temperature records, and published data forecasting the deepening of the active layer. Results illustrate that much of the adaptation practices are carried out ad-hoc and due to a lack of human and financial resources there are currently no long-term solutions. The research leading to this study received support from the Nunataryuk project, funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program. Climate coffees are relaxed meetings for scientists to exchange ideas, discuss about their latest results and new methods with their fellow scientists. Climate coffees are an initiative of ECRA and Blue-Action. Read the article here. Register for the Climate coffee here.
Nordregio at the “Population Dynamics and Climate Implications in the Arctic” webinar
Nordregio researchers Timothy Heleniak and Justine Ramage will present at the “Population Dynamics and Climate Implications in the Arctic” webinar. They will participate in a panel discussion on Arctic Population Dynamics and share their insights based on Nordregio projects ”Polar Peoples in the Future: Projections of the Arctic Populations” and “Atlas of population, society and economy in the Arctic”. The webinar will provide a forum for experts and attendees to: Identify human geography data which provides a foundation for examining the changing environment in the Arctic Explore Arctic demographic trends, including outmigration, urbanization, and settlements, and their broader impacts Discuss participatory and other local mapping processes conducted with indigenous peoples to better understand human security issues in the Arctic region Webinar speakers and the WWHGD Working Group Support Team will highlight and share relevant methods and data during the event. You will also have the opportunity to collaborate with other participants, share data, and pose questions to the speakers. The webinar is sponsored by the World-wide Human Geography Data Working Group and hosted by the Office of the Geographer of the U.S. State Department. The WWHGD is co-led by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the U.S. Department of State. Find more information and registration here.
Nordregio’s position regarding the funding of research and research collaboration with Russia and Belarus
The Council of Nordic Ministers decided as of March 4, 2022, to immediately discontinue all collaborative efforts with Russia and Belarus. The Nordic Ministers for Cooperation stand united in this decision. This means that programs, projects, and activities in Russia and Belarus are discontinued until further notice. In light of the stance put forth by the Nordic Ministers for Cooperation, Nordregio issues a moratorium as regards the disbursal of project funds, the acceptance of applications, the execution of projects, and the entry into agreements and the like that involve Russian and Belarusian parties. The intention is to end all contacts and collaborative efforts with governmental and public institutions of Russian or Belarusian origin. “Intellectual and cultural engagement between individuals is an important prerequisite to creating cohesion and mutual understanding between countries. It is devastating that this war in this way will affect cooperation in academia, research and culture – fields that are meant to serve as tools for mitigating conflicts, building global understanding across borders and supporting people-to-people contacts. The Director reserves the right to decide whether specific contacts and collaborative efforts are appropriate on a case-by-case basis if the circumstances change in the future,” says Nordregio Director Rolf Elmér. Nordregio has been involved with four projects with one or several Russian counterparts: FemArc, Semper Arctic, WANO and Accelerating wood construction across Nordics and Russia. All of these projects have been halted.
Nordregio and Female Arctic project at the Barents Spektakel 2022
Nordregio Senior Research Fellow Anna Karlsdóttir will present the Female Arctic project at the Barents Spektakel Festival. During the 18th edition of the Barents Spektakel, between the 23rd and 27th of February 2022, Nordregio Senior Research Fellow Anna Karlsdóttir will present the Female Arctic project. Funded by the Swedish Institute, this initiative is a participatory filmmaking project where participants from the Murmansk region learn the basics of documentary films to create a movie about women living and creating in the Arctic. During the event, Anna Karlsdóttir will present comparative perspectives from the mining communities in Sweden and women’s agency, drawing on historical evidence and using examples of Swedish women in Norrbotten. The presentation will also feature parts of the film in the making, and curators and participants will share their experiences of co-creating the film. Female Arctic was preceded by a pilot project on empowering women in industrialized cities of the North when the project partners organized workshops in Murmansk. A new golden age of celebration and decadence? A long overdue reunion with friends and family? Or a false dawn for normality? The 2022 edition will focus on movements, mobility, community, and the re-making of meeting places. The festival aims to become a platform for imagination again through a cross-border programme of performances, exhibitions, concerts, debates, discussions, a bar concept, and an art symposium. During these uncertain times, still in transition, now is the time to ask ourselves: Where do we go from here? Read more about the festival!
Nordic population issues at the conference “Learning in the North”
This year’s Learning in the North – NVL/EPALE conference looks at the world’s challenges concerning the green shift, the digital transformation and the increasing globalization trend. Nordregio Senior Research Fellow Timoty Heleniak will participate in the event and discuss population issues in the Nordic High North and Arctic. In his presentation, Timothy Heleniak will focus on the Nordic High North, defined as the northern regions of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Greenland, Iceland, the Faroes. He will also compare the other areas of the Arctic facing similar demographic dilemmas. “The northern areas of the Nordic region face a number of demographic challenges. These include scattered settlements, declining and aging populations, and often gender imbalances along the urban hierarchy. These demographic trends often make sustaining vibrant economies difficult. Many regions in the High North are actively working to address these demographic trends through various policies and programmes,” – says Dr Heleniak. How can cooperation between educational actors, administration and business contribute to the development of a sustainable and competitive society and a work and business life in the North? How can the High North succeed in developing and utilizing the right competencies for tomorrow’s business and social life in the North? These are some of the questions that will be discussed at the conference. The conference will also contribute to achieving the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Vision 2030 goals for a green, socially inclusive, and competitive Nordic region. It will also address the European Skills Agenda’s goal of developing competence to strengthen sustainable competitiveness, social inclusion, and resilience in the face of crises. Find more about the conference here.
Nordregio at the Arctic Circle Assembly 2021
Nordregio researchers Anna Karlsdóttir and Ágúst Bogason participate in Arctic Circle Assembly 2021 – the largest annual international gathering on the Arctic. They will present the Nordic Arctic Cooperation Programme and moderate a session. Dr Anna Karlsdóttir, Senior Research Fellow at Nordregio, will participate in the “Arctic Blue Bioeconomy: Effects of the Covid-19 pandemic” event, presenting the topic “Nordic Arctic Cooperation Programme: Innovation-driven and job-generating blue bioeconomy in the Nordic Arctic region after COVID-19”. The Nordic Council of Ministers organizes this event together with Nordregio, Nordic Research Center for Regional Development and Planning, NORA, and the Nordic Atlantic Cooperation. The researcher will also moderate a section for the Icelandic institute of international affairs from the University of Iceland. “The session “Innovation for a New Arctic” focuses on a discussion between scientists, policymakers, representatives from the business sector, and young social entrepreneurs in the Arctic region. A real discourse among these different actors on the challenges facing the Arctic and what needs to be done to meet them is of great importance for the prospects of the Arctic Region,” says Karlsdóttir. Arctic Circle is the largest network of international dialogue and cooperation focusing on the future of the Arctic and of our planet. It is an open democratic platform with participation from governments, organizations, corporations, universities, think tanks, environmental associations, indigenous communities, concerned citizens, and others. Arctic Circle is also non-profit and nonpartisan. Find more about the Nordic Arctic Cooperation Programme here. Find more about the Arctic Circle Assembly here.
Rediscovering the assets of rural areas
During the Covid-19 pandemic, the public attitude toward the rural areas has significantly changed. Peripheries became a refuge for maintaining health, wellbeing, strengthening community ties and local economies. This was clearly highlighted by experts from the Nordic and North Atlantic research organisations in the Nordic Talks discussion hosted by Nordregio. The word “peripherality” is often associated with negative meanings, e.g. under-developed, slow, backward and remote. However, as the study “COVID-19 Economic Impacts & Recovery in the Northern Periphery & Arctic” suggests, the pandemic has challenged the way many see rural and peripheral regions and revealed peripheral factors that have been advantages in the crisis. Well-being and resilient places during the crisis “We have seen for the first time in many years that population is coming back to rural areas for a lot of different reasons. Covid-19 has accelerated that because of the huge amount of extra flexibility in terms of work practices – where people might live and work, how they can combine commuting and working from home,” says Liam Glynn, a practicing GP (community doctor) in an Irish village of just over 250 people, and also Professor of General Practice, School of Medicine at Limerick University, Ireland, and lead partner for the CovidWatch-EU-NPA project. Some factors that define peripherality, such as close-knit communities, adaptation to the challenges of remoteness and pluralistic life and work patterns, have helped peripheral communities to respond more effectively to Covid-19. As Liam Glynn pointed out during the discussion, this response had more positive effects on the health and local economies of rural areas than of many urban centres. Peripherality has demonstrated its resilience factor for local economies. Rural communities have noticed, that many are seeking to move to rural or remote areas as good places to live in. “Our research across the Nordic periphery…
Nordregio at the International Union for Conservation of Nature World Congress
French Institute Nordic Award winner and Nordregio Research Fellow Justine Ramage participated at the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) World Congress in Marseille, presenting her work on permafrost. An event of huge proportions, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) World Congress gathers a significant number of world-level leaders who discuss issues and solutions to combat the loss of biodiversity in the world. During this year’s congress, Nordregio Research Fellow Justine Ramage gave a presentation about permafrost and Nordregio’s work within the Nunataryuk project. The speech focused on the impact of permafrost thaw and its effects on the Arctic population and ecosystem services. It explained the consequences of climate change on permafrost landscapes, the carbon budget, and people. Together with the audience, Nordregio Research Fellow Justine Ramage “travelled” to the permafrost region, showed pictures and offered facts and results from the latest study on perceived impacts of permafrost thaw in three communities. “The impacts of permafrost thaw and its perception by people living on permafrost are diverse. Permafrost thaw is perceived by its residents as a major cause for challenges in subsistence activities, infrastructure, and the physical environment. Our work highlights that social perceptions are not solely determined by physical changes, but also by factors such as discourses of climate change, cultural background, and land use,” says Justine Ramage. The project has listed as one of its main goals the attempt to determine the impacts of thawing land, coast and subsea permafrost on the global climate and humans living in the Arctic. And it also aims to develop targeted and co-designed adaptation and mitigation strategies. Justine Ramage obtained the FINA (French Institute Nordic Award) for her work on the impact of permafrost thaw on landscapes and ecosystem services. The FINA prize aims to promote cooperation between France…
Nordregio at the International Congress of Arctic Social Sciences
The Arctic is home to approximately four million people, counting numerous ethnicities among its inhabitants and more than ten percent of the total population living in there is Indigenous peoples. All aspects of human existence in the Arctic in the past, present and future are analyzed at the Congress (ICASS X). Nordregio researchers, Timothy Heleniak, Anna Karlsdóttir and Leneisja Jungsberg, participated at the International Congress of Arctic Social Sciences, offering presentations during different sessions on Science and Arctic communities in response to climate change, Indigenous people, population history of Alaska natives, coastal communities adapting to permafrost, inequalities in the Arctic. “ICASS X provides an overview of state of the art in Arctic social science research. Congress connects researchers and allows us to learn and get inspired from each other’s work – in a five-day conference, and we virtually meet almost 1000 researchers. In the congress, participation of indigenous scholars and early career researchers is particularly supported”, says Leneisja Jungsberg, Research Fellow at Nordregio. The Congress takes a deep dive into the history, future and sustainability of Arctic peoples and environment, throughout generations and co-production of knowledge with Indigenous knowledge holders and Arctic stakeholders. Social sciences and humanities have a great responsibility to address Arctic sustainability challenges. By focusing on people and the Arctic area, the conference highlights the many differences across the Arctic region regarding political systems, demography, infrastructures, histories, languages, legal systems, land and water resources, and public health. You are welcome to contact the researchers to get the presentation material or if you have any feedback regarding the topics.
Gender equality in the Arctic – freshly published report!
The importance of gender and diversity issues has become increasingly evident and has been engaging researchers worldwide. The Arctic Council Sustainable Development Working Group and The Icelandic Chairmanship of the Arctic Council zoom in on these issues in the Arctic context and have recently published a report “Gender Equality in the Arctic 3”. With a curiosity towards the complexities of the gender equality topic, Nordregio researchers Timothy Heleniak, Anna Karlsdóttir and Justine Ramage have collaborated on the above-mentioned report. It highlights the importance of recognising and appreciating diversity in terms of discourse, gender, Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples, governance, education, economies, social realities, sustainability, and balanced participation in leadership and decision making, in both the public and private sectors. The study pulls together material, information, and expertise to provide an overview of gender-related issues in the Arctic and fill knowledge gaps on this subject. It seeks to identify emerging issues, priorities, and concrete strategies that support gender balance and increased diversity. “The “Gender equality in the Arctic phase 3 report” is the product of contributions and engagement from a broad array of stakeholders. Nordregio was pleased to contribute as a reviewer and with data on the mobility chapter, maps in several chapters, and contributions from previous research on gender and environment, empowerment and fate control. Support was provided through the Nordic Arctic Cooperation Programme, which Nordregio administers,” explains Timothy Heleniak, Senior Research Fellow at Nordregio.
Nordregio Research Fellow speaks at Arctic Science Summit Week
Nordregio Research Fellow Leneisja Jungsberg takes part in the Arctic Science Summit Week 2021. Leneisja Jungsberg, Research Fellow a Nordregio, will participate on 25 March at Arctic Science Summit Week 2021. The event takes place online between 19 and 26 March, focusing on the dramatic physical, biogeochemical and socio-economical changes that the Arctic coast is going through. The aim of the session Nordregio’s Leneisja Jungsberg participates in is to bring together researchers, indigenous partners and community members who are studying, predicting, modelling and living with these dramatic coastal and nearshore changes across the Arctic. The causes for this decline are numerous and count environmental factors such as warming air temperatures, declining sea ice, permafrost thaw and more. Increasing erosion rates lead to the release of large amounts of organic matter and contaminants to the nearshore zone and the upper shelf, transforming the ecosystem and altering trophic systems. It is also putting new pressures on Arctic coastal dynamics with the loss of landscapes and cultural heritage sites as well as damages on infrastructure creating stress and uncertainty in local communities. The scope of the event is to ultimately provide critical information to support future planning, mitigation and adaptation measures of these changing permafrost coastal landscapes. Arctic Science Summit Week 2021 is co-organized by the EU H2020 Nunataryuk and the NSF PerCS-Net project and is a contribution to the coastal processes action group of T-MOSAiC. Find out more about the event!
Nordregio is hiring: Head of GIS Department
Nordregio is inviting applications for a senior position as Head of GIS Department. Working at Nordregio means an opportunity to become part of a truly international research environment with a focus on sustainable regional development in the Nordic region and beyond. It offers significant career development potential in terms of enhancing your competences through applied and policy relevant research, achieving an international network of contacts, as well as getting extensive experience in team and project management. You will also get rich opportunities to collaborate with regional and municipal stakeholders in the Nordic countries. Nordregio is currently seeking a new Head of GIS Department with: Expertise in GIS, geo-data, quantitative analysis, and applied research in the field of regional development. Experience in leading a team and managing projects as well as a successful track record in grant applications. Knowledge in geographies and socio-economic trends in the Nordic Region and beyond. A drive for working in teams and in an international applied research environment. Eagerness to present and disseminate results to different stakeholder groups, both orally and in written format. Competences and qualifications As Head of GIS Department, you both lead and manage the GIS-team by planning and organising tasks and activities, communicate with each team member and contribute to their development. You are also a project manager with responsibilities to attract, initiate and lead externally funded research and innovation projects. The geographic scope of your field of interest includes a European and international perspective and expert knowledge in at least one of the Nordic countries. We appreciate abilities in external networking and in communication with stakeholders. Internally we appreciate analytical and creative skills, complemented by abilities to both cooperate and work on your own. For this position, you have at least 6 years of relevant work experience and an extensive network…
- 2021 February
- Baltic Sea Region
- Nordic Region
- Arctic issues
- Gender equality
- Green transition
- Labour market
- Maritime spatial planning
- Regional innovation
- Rural development
- Sustainable development
- Urban planning
“Population on Permafrost in the Arctic” – new paper by Nordregio researchers!
The new year starts with the publication of a scientific article penned by Nordregio researchers, focusing on the impact of permafrost thaw on the people living in the Arctic circumpolar permafrost region. In 2017, close to five million people lived in 1162 permafrost settlements in the Arctic Circumpolar Permafrost Region. As a result of permafrost thaw, the number of inhabitants is projected to decrease by 61.2%, from 4.9 million to 1.7 million—many of them living in permafrost-free areas by 2050. Titled “Population on Permafrost in the Arctic”, the paper is the first demographic study assessing the population living in these areas and the huge impact of permafrost thaw upon their lives. Half of the current settlements will be affected, eventually disappearing due to thawing of permafrost. The consequences will vary depending on the remaining ones’ location, future climate trajectories and the extent to which settlements can adapt in the remaining time before permafrost thaws. The authors of the paper published in the journal of Population and Environment are Nordregio Research Fellows Justine Ramage, Leneisja Jungsberg, Senior Research Fellow Tim Heleniak and GIS Specialist Shinan Wang.
Apply to the Nordic Arctic Co-operation Programme
The Nordic Arctic Cooperation Programme of the Nordic Council of Ministers has opened up its call for new project applications for financial support in 2021. Deadline for sending in proposals is 1st February 2021 (12:00 CET). The aim of the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Arctic Cooperation Programme 2018-2021 is to create sustainable and constructive development in the Arctic and for its people based on the four P’s: planet, peoples, prosperity and partnerships. The programme is administered by Nordregio, with one round of applications per programme years.
26 October: Scottish and Nordic lessons on reversing depopulation
Welcome to the webinar 26 October at 17.30 -18.45 (CET) about Scottish and Nordic perspectives on the common objective of repopulating rural and remote areas hosted by Scottish Government. This session will offer Scottish and Nordic perspectives on the common objective of repopulating rural and remote areas, identifying similarities, divergences and opportunities for mutual learning. Discussions will focus on approaches to making rural and remote communities attractive places to move to, live, work and bring up families, to ensure sustainable populations, facilitate inclusive economic growth and support wellbeing. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will be multifaceted from a population and migration perspective, with higher mortality rates of an ageing population and international and internal migration flows already impacted in the short-term. Moderator: Jane Craigie – Director, Rural Youth Project Speakers: Fiona Hyslop – Cabinet Secretary for Economy, Fair Work and Culture Karen Refsgaard – Research Director, Nordregio Timothy Heleniak – Senior Research Fellow, Nordregio Jane Atterton – Manager, Rural Policy Centre, Scotland’s Rural College Martin Shields – Isle of Kerrera Development Trust This event is part of the Scottish Government’s Arctic Connections webinar series. Register here: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/rural-and-thriving-scottish-and-nordic-lessons-on-reversing-depopulation-tickets-124069853271?aff=erelpanelorg
How do Sámi youth experience their education and job opportunities?
Sami language competence is a sought-after skill in the regional labour markets. Sami-related occupations can be found in traditional occupations such as reindeer husbandry and Sami handicrafts, but also in tourism and in creative industries. But are there enough Sami teachers? And how do Sami education institutions meet the labour market demands and opportunities? Nordregio has published a report on Sámi youth perceptions in English and Northern Sami as a part of the work of The Nordic Thematic Group on Sustainable Rural Development 2017-2020. The report is available both in English and Northern Sámi, see the links below. Nordregio hosted a webinar in early June based on the findings of this report together with Sami youth representatives Juhán Niila Stålka, board member of the youth association Sáminuorra, and Arla Magga, the Sami Parliament in Finland, author of a report on cross-border education and the coordinator of an ongoing project on remote Sami language education. In case you missed it, the recording is available here: https://nordregio.adobeconnect.com/p9yjila7h1ac/?proto=true
Webinar 9 June: Sami Youth – Access to education and labour markets
Sami language competence is a sought-after skill in the regional labour markets. Sami-related occupations can be found in traditional occupations such as reindeer husbandry and Sami handicrafts, but also in tourism and in creative industries. But are there enough Sami teachers? And how do Sami education institutions meet the labour market demands and opportunities? A new report from Nordregio investigates these questions and the results are discussed in a webinar 9 June at 3pm (CET) together with Sami youth representatives Juhán Niila Stålka, board member of the youth association Sáminuorra, and Arla Magga, the Sami Parliament in Finland, author of a report on cross-border education and the coordinator of an ongoing project on remote Sami language education. “We didn’t really learn anything about our own culture in school. I started learning about it at university. Now that I have the language, there is so much I can do, for example translations, interpretation, write education material. (…) I have a friend who teaches Sami language remotely while living abroad. Modern technology makes this possible.” (Youth, F, FI) Linnea Löfving from Nordregio together with Lise Smed Olsen from Oxford Research will present the results of the study which was commissioned by The Nordic Thematic Group on Sustainable Rural Development 2017-2020. The report will be available at the group’s website, see nordregioprojects.org/rural, as well as sent to all webinar participants middle of June. A link to the event will be sent to all participants a day before, but registration is needed here: https://www.lyyti.in/Samiwebinar
Cruise tourism in the Arctic: Local or global goals?
A new study compares two Arctic cruise destinations – Ísafjörður in Iceland, and Qaqortoq in Greenland – with a focus on how core stakeholders perceive the sustainability of cruise tourism and how power relations in the industrial development between place-bound local stakeholders and global cruise lines are played out? – We have seen unprecedented growth in cruise tourism in the last decade in many of the more remote Northern destinations in the Nordic countries – with both good and bad impacts. It sets pressure on environmental carrying capacity and social tolerance in smaller communities like Ísafjörður, Iceland and in South Greenland. A sudden stop of traffic due to Covid-19 will enable decision-makers and stakeholders in the tourism industry to reconsider more sustainable ways of supporting the renaissance of shipborne tourism in the Arctic. The findings of this article may be helpful in paving that trajectory, says Senior Research Fellow Anna Karlsdóttir, who together with Laura James at Aalborg University and Lise Smed Olsen at Oxford Research published a paper Sustainability and cruise tourism in the arctic: stakeholder perspectives from Ísafjörður, Iceland and Qaqortoq, Greenland. Based on interviews with local stakeholders it seems that the development level of a destination and the relative importance of land-based tourism have an impact on how local actors rate sustainability issues. -The relative importance shows in Ísafjörður and the Westfjords, as there are an abundance of possibilities to develop soft adventure tourism like hiking, kayaking, slow tourism, agrotourism but due to the growth in cruise calls to the region the capacity has simply not been there. The cruise tourism crowds out other maybe more economically sustainable ways of developing tourism, Karlsdóttir explains. The study shows that there were differences in the emphasis placed on the environmental, socio-cultural and economic aspects of sustainability in each destination, but also similarities in the perceived…
The Future of Polar People
Overall, the population of the Arctic is projected to change only a little in the foreseeable future. However, there will be considerable variation in growth rates among the Arctic regions: Alaska, Yukon, Nunavut, Iceland, Troms, Khanty-Mansiy Autonomous Okrug and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug are projected to experience a substantial population increase of more than 10%. Kainuu in Finland, Karelia, Komi, Arkhangelsk, Murmansk, and Magadan in Russia are projected to have population reductions of more than 5% each. In addition, global population growth has had and will continue to have a profound impact on the Arctic and its population. Rapid population growth is a major contributor to global warming – which is occurring much faster in most of the Arctic than anywhere else. While the populations of some Arctic regions are projected to grow and others are projected to decline, there are some common demographic trends which are expected to take place in nearly all. Ageing: In common with many countries and regions in the developed world, the populations of the Arctic region are projected to age in the future. Sex ratios: Arctic regions have typically had a rather higher ratio of men to women, which are now projected to decline. Urbanisation: It appears that the population size in many smaller Arctic settlements will decline, and some may even be abandoned, while much of the growth will be concentrated in larger settlements – in some cases, just one large settlement. Nordregio publishes a Working Paper on Polar Peoples in the Future: Projections of the Arctic Populations and a short Executive summary.