Nordic cycling policy: National objectives, mechanisms, and actors in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden
This paper reviews how Nordic countries are working to improve cycling via policy and planning. It takes a national-level approach to review cycling objectives, mechanisms and key actors in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden.
Rooting for the Rural: Changing narratives and creating opportunities for Nordic rural youth
This policy brief delves into the importance of understanding and supporting the priorities of young people in Nordic rural regions to ensure these communities thrive. It highlights the importance of addressing challenges that keep youth from staying in rural areas and engaging with those unsure about their future there. Serving as a comprehensive guide for policymakers, the policy brief contextualises the report from the Nordic rural youth panel “From Fields to Futures: 40 action points for rural revitalisation”. The brief examines academic discussions, prevalent narratives, and youth engagement efforts, emphasising the Nordic Rural Youth Panel’s 40 proposed actions to revitalise rural areas. The paper investigates what young people need and want, their aspirations and ideas, and the solutions they present to policymakers that could attract them back to rural areas. It also explores ways to create and enhance opportunities for rural youth to realise their potential and contribute significantly to their communities, thereby changing the existing narratives about young people in rural areas. Lastly, the policy brief stresses the importance of considering diverse youth perspectives in policymaking to promote inclusive and sustainable rural development in alignment with the Nordic Vision.
Gen Z Agency: Mobilising young people to strengthen Nordic rural areas – What we did and how we did it
This discussion paper outlines the project Gen Z Agency: Mobilising young people to strengthen Nordic rural areas, highlighting what we did and how we did it when engaging young people to tell us what policy and decision-makers need to do to revitalise Nordic rural areas. The discussion paper emphasizes the significance of understanding the priorities of young people in Nordic rural regions to shape thriving communities. Individuals in their twenties and thirties play a crucial role in the future development of the Nordic region, facing decisions about careers and settlement. The project, “Gen Z Agency,” places young people at its core, aiming to gather their aspirations and solutions for revitalizing rural areas. The Nordic Region’s vision for 2030 focuses on sustainability, integration, and making it the best place for young people. Recognizing youth as rights-holders, the project aligns with the Nordic vision to improve well-being and enable youth to be heard. Youth involvement is crucial for sustainable and inclusive regional development, especially in rural areas facing challenges like an aging population and youth migration. The paper stresses the importance of understanding diverse experiences and perspectives among young people in addressing these challenges. The voices and engagement of young people are central for strengthening Nordic rural areas and promoting their well-being. The project seeks to uncover what is needed for young people to envision a future in rural areas, exploring solutions and enablers for them to live and work there. In pursuing social and environmental sustainability, the active involvement of young people in policy formulation is essential.
From Fields to Futures: 40 action points for rural revitalisation
The Nordic Rural Youth Panel has synthesized a report outlining 40 actionable recommendations for making rural areas in the Nordic region more attractive for young people. The recommendations address the ongoing trend of young people moving to cities, highlighting the need for better public transportation, various housing options, and education that connects to local job markets in rural areas. The panel wants to change the common view that success and a good life can only be found in cities, and highlight the potential and vibrancy of rural areas. The report expands on several key areas: Developed with input from 25 young people across the whole Nordic region, the panel’s recommendations serve as a guide for creating appealing, dynamic, and sustainable rural communities, ensuring young people are at the centre of these efforts.
Demografi och kompetensförsörjning i gränsområdet Innlandet-Dalarna-Värmland
Denna rapport är beställd av Gränsregionen Innlandet-Dalarna med syftet att ta fram statistik över gränsregionen Innlandet-Dalarna (inklusive Värmland) med fokus på kompetensförsörjning i gränskommunerna mellan Sverige och Norge. Rapporten innehåller statistik över arbetsmarknaden i gränsområdet med fokus på nutid och utveckling under den senaste tioårsperioden. I den här avslutande delen vänds i stället blicken mot framtiden för att diskutera de trender som väntas påverka framtidens arbetsmarknad och de utmaningar och möjligheter det kan innebära för gränskommunerna i Innlandet-Dalarna-Värmland. Det som styr tillgång och efterfrågan på arbetsmarknaden på lång sikt är främst de större megatrenderna. Men även konjunkturfaktorer och specifika händelser kan ha stor påverkan på kort sikt. Arbetsmarknaden är tätt knuten till den ekonomiska konjunkturen och enskilda händelser som pandemin och Rysslands invasion av Ukraina är exempel på händelser som kan ha stor påverkan på kort sikt. Alla dessa trender och händelser manifesteras olika på olika platser då alla lokala arbetsmarknader har olika förutsättningar som skapar såväl möjligheter som utmaningar. I det här avsnittet tas först konjunkturens roll upp och sedan vänds fokus mot megatrenderna och vilka utmaningar och möjligheter som de kan komma att medföra för gränskommunerna.
Embracing the just green transition on the Nordic labour market
The green transition aims to reduce CO2 emissions and align with UN Agenda 2030 and the Paris Agreement. It affects various sectors, labor markets, and society – and it is important to leave no one behind to ensure a just green transition. This reports shares best practice examples from around the Nordic countries to show how a just green transition can be tackled. Exchange of best practices and strong social dialogue can help achieve a sustainable Nordic region by 2030. This report provides background and insights for the “Green Transition on the Nordic Labor Market” dialogue, covering green transition impacts, just transition strategies, and Nordic best practices. The exchange of best practices among the Nordic countries and strengthening of social dialogue could be an enabler to achieving a just Nordic green transition based on economic growth, social justice and a steady path towards carbon neutrality. It could also be an important step towards achieving the Nordic vision of being the most sustainable and integrated region in the world by 2030. This report sets out to provide some background and inspiration for the discussions during the “Green Transition on the Nordic Labour market: A Nordic Tripartite Dialogue”. It provides basic knowledge about the green transition and how it impacts the Nordic countries. It also discusses how a just green transition can be tackled and shares best practice examples from around the Nordic countries. In the first section, some basic knowledge about the green transition and how it impacts the Nordic countries will be provided. The second section will discuss how a just green transition can be tackled and best practice examples from around the Nordic countries will be shared. The report will end with some short final remarks.
Youth as partners in the green transition
This policy brief is based on one of Nordregio’s Localising Agenda 2030 webinars. It highlights specific tools and processes employed by Nordic municipalities and NGOs to ensure systematic youth engagement and follow-up at the local level. During the webinar, municipal representatives from Gladsaxe in Denmark, Hafnarfjörður in Iceland, Tierp in Sweden and Korsholm in Finland presented their tested tools and insights, along with two Swedish NGOs: Future Minds and Youth 2030 Movement. The examples in this policy brief on how to involve young people in local development generally target children and young people aged 0-25, and in some cases up to 29 years of age. Two central questions were addressed during the webinar: how to ensure that young people can genuinely influence decisions that affect them; and how to conduct inclusive follow-up work.
Should I stay or should I go? Early career mobility and migration drivers
This working paper is a part of the project “Early Career Mobility in the Nordic Region”. The project explores current migration aspirations and associated factors of young people in the Nordic region. The study is conducted under the Nordic Thematic Group for Green, Innovative and Resilient Regions (2021 – 2024). Learning more about current migration drivers and migration aspirations of the early career cohorts in the Nordic countries will help policymakers to shape the future of Nordic labour markets and better prepare the future labour supply and demands in rural areas. This working paper will present the main findings from previous studies on migration drivers and will serve as a baseline for the data collection on migration history and migration aspirations of young people in the Nordic countries. The overall objective of Early Career Mobility in the Nordic Region is to develop a deeper knowledge of young people´s regional mobility and migration aspirations within the Nordic region. The research will address and assess the following key research questions: The aim of the project is to understand recent and future developments in regional migration trends in the Nordic region, targeting the population cohorts aged 25 – 39 year olds, which we refer to as the household-creating ages. The project will put an emphasis on urban-to-rural migration, addressing cross-cutting themes such as gender and the Green Transition. The project will collect survey data on individuals in the household-creating ages in the Nordic region, exploring migration aspirations and factors associated with the wish to leave. Furthermore, there is a rising interest in understanding how digitalisation and remote work opportunities are influencing labour mobility and lifestyle decisions among the younger cohorts in the labour market, which this project also will shed light on. Documenting migration aspirations can offer insights into migration forecasts and migration…
What impact do climate change policies have on Nordic economies, industries, and households?
This report is the first out of four reports of the project “Ensuring inclusive economic growth in the transition to a green economy (EnIGG)”. The EnIGG project is a cross-sectoral project initiated and financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers and coordinated by Nordregio. The report aims to increase knowledge on how to strengthen the Nordic economies in a challenging context and accelerate the green transition towards a climate-neutral economy while ensuring that these processes are inclusive.
Young Voices from the Arctic: Insights on Climate Change and Permafrost Degradation
The Arctic is warming at four times the global rate, significantly impacting communities, especially the youth. This working paper emphasizes the need to amplify Arctic youth voices and calls for more research on youth engagement to address the impacts of climate change and permafrost degradation. The Arctic region is warming almost four times as fast as the global average. Snow and ice are thawing at an increasing rate, and the rapid environmental shifts have a disproportionate effect on communities across the Northern Hemisphere. This leads to significant permafrost degradation, which disrupts community infrastructure, cultural heritage, landscapes, and impacts animal migration and subsistence activities. This change has severe consequences for the youth in the region, affecting their present lives and future outlooks. This working paper emphasizes the importance of addressing these issues and enhancing the voices of Arctic youth, who advocate for climate change adaptation and mitigation, as they will be central in shaping society in the face of these environmental shifts. The paper highlights Arctic youths’ perspectives on climate change and permafrost degradation, covering individuals from the legal age to early-career experts up to 35. Further, the paper states a need for more research and exploration of youth engagement methodologies in the Arctic to address the impacts of climate change and permafrost degradation.
Can local value creation induce a sense of justice during green transitions? A study of six rural areas in Denmark, Finland, and Norway
Nordic rural areas risk alienation due to top-down green transition measures that often overlook their unique needs and challenges. This report suggests early local engagement, transparent communication, and regional ownership of energy projects can foster trust, ensure equitable benefits, and better integrate projects with local aspirations. The accelerating impacts of climate change, the need to adapt to changing economic and political realities, and the recent energy crisis have made the green transition something that most Nordic citizens acknowledge. However, especially rural areas and their communities are at risk of being reduced to passive instruments of national green transition measures featuring heavy land-use. These conditions make it very difficult to create a sense of justness in green transitions, leading to growing sense of alienation and resentment and putting the national climate goals in danger. From this starting point, the case studies of the research project “Just Green Transition on Rural Areas: Local Benefits from Value Creation” set out to examine what kind of benefits would generate value from green transition measures in the direct impact zone of new energy projects. The case studies took place in three Nordic countries and six locations: in Northern Ostrobothnia and Northern Central Finland of Finland, involving wind power and land use planning; in Nord-Fron and Nord-Odal in Norway, involving both wind power and strategic sustainability work; and in Skive and Bornholm of Denmark, involving a hybrid mix of renewable energy sources in the context of industrial park development. The results highlight the importance of local involvement and trust in green energy transitions in Nordic rural areas. Neglecting local needs can cause resistance to renewable projects. Early engagement, transparent communication, and ensuring local benefits are vital. While monetary benefits attract attention, relying solely on them can create community divisions. A blend of community engagement, environmental benefits,…
The OECD Rural Agenda for Climate Action Compendium of Best Practices: Peatland ACTION
Peatland ACTION is a programme delivering peatland restoration projects across Scotland to tackle climate change and biodiversity loss. Peatlands are terrestrial wetland environments where the peat – a dark brown substance like soil – is waterlogged for most of the year. 80% of the UK’s peatlands, the majority of which are in Scotland, are estimated to be in poor condition. In their natural state, peatlands represent the single most important terrestrial soil carbon store. Yet, activities such as artificial drainage, forestry, over-grazing and extraction, result in the peatlands emitting carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases (GHG), thereby contributing to climate change. In addition, other benefits of healthy peatlands such as source-water quality, flood management and addressing wildfire risks are much reduced. The UK’s GHG inventory estimates that degraded peatlands are contributing over 15% of Scotland’s GHG emissions. To reverse this trend and ensure that peatlands act as a carbon storage, Peatland ACTION provides funding to land managers to restore peatlands as well as advisory services, project design and restoration management. This storymap was produced as a collaboration between Nordregio and the OECD Rural Agenda for Climate Action.
Integrating climate in macroeconomic modelling: A Nordic perspective
This policy brief summarises key messages from a webinar series hosted by the Integrating climate in macroeconomic modelling (ICMM) project during the second half of 2022 and the first half of 2023. The main goal of the project was to foster discussions about a new generation of fair and cost-effective climate policies and how relevant integrated macroeconomic models are in the process. Additionally to find collaboration opportunities between experts and policy makers from countries within and outside the Nordics. In the wake of recent climate policy discussions at the EU, Nordic and national levels, the webinars were designed to grow expert and policy-planning knowledge and expand networks among model developers and model users from different Nordic countries. More than 100 experts and policy makers with different backgrounds and profiles have participated in the six technical and policy workshops organised by the project. Ultimately, the ICMM project strives to enhance the capacity of policymakers to develop climate policies that are both sustainable and integrated, aligning with the Nordic region’s “Our Vision 2023” ambition to become the most sustainable and integrated region in the world.
The OECD Rural Agenda for Climate Action Compendium of Best Practices: GreenLab
The GreenLab industrial park in Skive, Denmark, is a best-practice example of a circular economy model and renewable energy utilization. The park integrates renewable energy sources and enables companies to share surplus energy and resources through an intelligent grid called SymbiosisNetTM. It also focuses on turning agricultural waste into valuable resources, reducing carbon emissions, and driving regional development. GreenLab is a research facility that promotes innovation and attracts private investments. The park has created economic, social, and environmental benefits for the local community and serves as a model for green innovation and rural development. The future vision of GreenLab is to become a leading global centre for sustainable energy and expand its impact by advising other regions interested in replicating the model. This storymap was produced as a collaboration between Nordregio and the OECD Rural Agenda for Climate Action.
Healthy and sustainable food futures: Policy design for behaviour change
This brief outlines a range of interventions and measures that policymakers can implement within the Nordic food environment to encourage sustainable and healthy food choices. These interventions encompass strategies related to nudging and product design, as well as economic incentives such as implementing taxes and subsidies on specific food categories. By employing these policies, policymakers can effectively govern the food environment and facilitate a shift in consumption patterns towards healthier and more sustainable options.
The Role of 5G in the Transition to a Digital and Green Economy in the Nordic and Baltic Countries: Analytic Report
The report provides an overview of the status of 5G roll-out and its industrial uptake in the Nordic-Baltic region. The aim is not only to present the roll-out status across the region but also to put these insights into a broader political and technological context. The report describes some of the most relevant testbeds and policy initiatives, provides examples of successful and promising use cases, and highlights existing strengths and ongoing challenges in the Nordic-Baltic region. Juxtaposing these against established goals emphasises areas for possible future cooperation and knowledge exchange between the Nordic and Baltic actors to encourage sustainable innovation and competitiveness across the region. The report reveals notable variations in the progress of 5G coverage among the Nordic-Baltic countries. Denmark and Finland have made significant strides and surpassed the European Union average regarding 5G coverage, while other countries still face challenges in catching up. Despite the presence of numerous 5G activities, such as testbeds and innovation hubs, a considerable number of initiatives remain in the testing and prototyping stage. The report indicates that the full potential of 5G for innovation and competitiveness in the Nordic-Baltic region has yet to be fully realised. With the accelerated digitalisation brought by 5G, the importance of cyber security considerations increases. As 5G networks increase electricity demand, it is essential to consider the environmental footprint and societal effects of their rollout. While 5G has immense potential, it necessitates significant adjustments in various areas, including network infrastructure, systems, applications, data ethics, privacy, and workforce implications. Challenges related to social inclusion further underscore the importance of cooperation and synergy across the region. The report highlights the need for increased knowledge exchange, the formulation of common roadmaps, and the establishment of guidelines to promote harmonised 5G deployment. Collaborative efforts among stakeholders are crucial for maximising the benefits…
Competence mobility: How can labour market mobility in the Nordic Region be increased?
It has been possible to work in another Nordic country since the establishment of the joint Nordic labour market in the 1950s. Nevertheless, only 1.7% of the working-age population work in a different Nordic country from the one in which they were born, and only 0.5 % commute to a job in another Nordic country. This is below the EU average of 1%. This story map examines why people choose to work in another Nordic country and why not. Welcome to explore facts about the Nordic labour market mobility and stories of people experiencing Nordic labour market mobility in Greater Copenhagen, Greenland and Vestfold Telemark.
How can labour market mobility in the Nordic Region be increased?
In this policy brief, we provide recommendations to the Nordic policymakers that would ultimately help achieve the Nordic vision – to be the most sustainable and integrated region in the world by 2030. This policy brief is based on the research project Re-start competence mobility in the Nordic Region, which is part of the regional co-operation programme and the “Green, Innovative and Resilient Regions” thematic group funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers.
Facilitating cross-border transport infrastructure planning in the Nordic Region
This publication analyses the formal and informal barriers to developing cross-border transport infrastructure and how these barriers could be reduced. Transport infrastructure, historically, has been a cornerstone for industrialisation, economic growth, regional development and labour market mobility in the Nordic Region. Despite the ambitious Nordic vision of becoming the most integrated and sustainable region in the world and the increasing need for cross-border transport infrastructure, several studies point to difficulties and challenges regarding the Nordic cross-border transport infrastructure planning. The study features interviews with planners on their practical experiences and suggestions for developing well-functioning transport infrastructure. The study includes cases of the fixed HH link between Helsingborg and Helsingør; the Stockholm-Oslo rail link; and the link from Mo i Rana, via Hemavan and Umeå, across the Kvarken Strait to Vaasa. 20 June: How can cross-border planning of the transport infrastructure be strengthened in the Nordic region? The Nordic cross-border transport infrastructure planning topic will be discussed in the webinar organised by Trafikverket on 20 June. Anna Lundgren, Senior Research Fellow at Nordregio, and the project manager, will present the study, cross-border challenges and opportunities. The study and planning practices will be discussed by Stefan Engdahl, Planning Director, Maria Öberg, Strategic planner at Trafikverket, and Maria Stockhaus, Member of the Swedish Parliament, member of the Transport Committee and the Nordic Council’s Swedish delegation. The event will be held in Swedish. Registration is open by 20 June. About the project This report is the second and final report in the project titled NORDINFRA – “Nordic transport infrastructure planning – institutional barriers and opportunities for coordination” (Nordisk transport infrastrukturplanering. Institutionella hinder och möjligheter till samordning) (2021-2023). NORDINFRA is a research project led by Nordregio and conducted by researchers from Nordregio and Umeå University, financed by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket). The aim of…