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Nordregio Strategy 2021-2024

The Nordregio Strategy 2021-2024 outlines our main mission and core research focus areas, which have been carefully aligned to address the key objectives and needs of policymakers and practitioners outlined within Nordic cooperation steering documents. In recent years, there has been a convergence of several global megatrends which are having a major impact on all aspects of the Nordic economy, society and environment. Climate change, migration, rapid demographic developments, digitalization and automation, increasing urban-rural divides, and growing socio-economic inequalities are some of the main threats facing the Nordic Region. Nordregio is focused on identifying practical Nordic policy solutions to help overcome these challenges and promote socio-economic growth and environmental sustainability across the Nordic Region. The Nordregio Strategy 2021-2024 has been written as a collaborative effort by our staff members in close cooperation with Nordregio’s Board of Directors, which represents the Nordic countries, Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland. The overarching goals that guide Nordregio’s research are outlined in the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Action Plan for Vision 2030, which is approved by the Ministers for Nordic Co-operation. The Action Plan defines the work to achieve the objectives of the Vision through a series of initiatives linked to the Vision’s three strategic priorities: a green Nordic Region, a competitive Nordic Region, and a socially sustainable Nordic Region. During the 2021-2024 period, Nordregio is committed to delivering high quality scientific, evidence-based research designed to provide policymakers and practitioners with sustainable policies to help overcome the main challenges faced by Nordic regions and municipalities. Our research will contribute substantially towards Nordic cooperation and synergies, while also showcasing Nordic policies, experience and competences internationally. The Board approved the Nordregio Strategy on the 15th of April 2021.

Nordic housing markets and policies

Housing plays a central role for people’s welfare. Its share of household consumption is about 25 percent on average, larger than that of any other item in a typical household’s budget. It is not surprising that issues related to housing figure prominently in public discussion. Nordic housing markets face more or less the same problems and challenges, but the ways policies and regulations deal with them differ in many respects. A comparison of policies, regulations and results across countries yields valuable lessons for policy makers. This year, the Nordic Economic Policy Review (NEPR) dives into the Nordic housing markets, examining some of the key policy mechanisms behind the rapidly rising housing prices, as well as the impacts on social welfare and social and ethnic segregation. The theme is selected by the NEPR steering group, which consists of representatives from the Nordic Ministries of Finance, Nordregio, and the NEPR academic project manager. This publication provides a short summary of the five NEPR 2021 articles, which seek to answer the following questions: André Anundsen: What is the prevalence of house price bubbles in the Nordics? Erlend Eide Bø: Do buy-to-let investments lead to higher housing prices? Mats Bergman and Sten Nyberg: What explains the large increase in the relative cost of construction? Niku Määttänen: How can housing taxation improve social welfare? Essi Eerola: How do Nordic housing policies affect affordability and integration? The full report is available here:

BONUS BASMATI HANDBOOK: Process, Methods and Tools for Stakeholder Involvement in Maritime Spatial Planning

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), as with any other type of planning, is not just about the plans and their content, but the process of making those plans. Incorporating expert knowledge and the perspectives of different sea users and interest groups through stakeholder involvement (SI) processes is a central element in the design and implementation of marine spatial plans (MSPs). This handbook explores some of the key issues relating to SI in MSP, including: How to think about involving stakeholders? How to understand their needs? Who to involve? When is the appropriate time to involve them? What methods and tools are needed? What are the drawbacks? And how can a process leader carry out an effective, transparent and fair process? This handbook provides practitioners with some practical answers to these questions by offering a framework for systematically thinking about SI in the MSP process. The ideas and approaches to SI outlined are based on first-hand experiences from planners in the Baltic Sea Region and cover the whole of the MSP policy cycle. Executive summaries The executive summaries outlining the conceptual framework, general principles, methodologies and future directions of the stakeholder engagement in MSP are available in six languages: Danish English Finnish German Latvian Swedish BONUS BASMATI project has received funding from BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and Innovation Fund Denmark, Swedish Research Council Formas, Academy of Finland, Latvian Ministry of Education and Science, and Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany).

Integrating immigrants into the Nordic labour markets

Migration to the Nordic region increased strongly during the refugee crisis in 2015. On a per-capita basis, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden have taken in more asylum seekers than most other European countries. In the coming years, these refugees and subsequent newcomers have to be integrated into the Nordic labour markets, if asylum is granted. This will be an extremely challenging process. All Nordic countries are characterised by significant employment gaps between natives and foreign born, with particularly large gaps existing in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Refugees in particular are more dependent on welfare support and less likely to be employed than natives. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have analysed measures to promote employment among migrants. Nonetheless, a systematic review of how different policies influence employment rates of refugees and other migrant groups in the Nordic countries has not been available previously. A new report produced by Nordregio for the Nordic Council of Ministers now gives an overview of existing measures to integrate immigrants into the Nordic labour market including policy recommendations and outlines of best practice. The following policy briefs are excerpts from the report Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets: Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets: An Overall Perspective, by Lars Calmfors and Nora Sánchez Gassen Active labour-market policies and newly arrived immigrants, by Pernilla Andersson Joona Immigration and social insurance design, by Bernt Bratsberg, Oddbjørn Raaum and Knut Røed Education policies for adolescent immigrants, by Anders Böhlmark Wage policies and the integration of immigrants, by Simon Ek and Per Skedinger How should the integration effort be organised?, by Vibeke Jakobsen and Torben Tranæs Policies promoting higher employment for non-Western immigrant women, by Jacob Nielsen Arendt and Marie Louise Schultz-Nielsen Education efforts and the integration of immigrants, by Tuomas Pekkarinen

Climate Policies in the Nordic Countries – Nordic Economic Policy Review 2019

The articles in the 2019 Nordic Economic Policy Review analyse how the Nordic countries best can contribute to international climate policy. The articles cover topics such as: How can the Nordics help raise the ambitions in the Paris Agreement? What is the effect of national policy on emissions regulated by the EU Emissions Trading System? Would it be cost-effective for the Nordic countries to pay for emission reductions elsewhere to a larger extent? What role should be played by subsidies to green technology? Should Norway put more emphasis on supply-side policies, that is, on limiting future extraction of oil and gas? Climate change has become a key concern for policy makers, business leaders and individuals all over the world. There exists a broad scientific consensus that the emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), are responsible for global warming that, if not halted, could have unacceptable consequences, including catastrophic ones, in at least parts of the world. The main argument used by economists to motivate policy intervention against climate change is that emissions of greenhouse gases that drive global warming are an externality. The benefits of using fossil fuel accrue to the user, whereas the largely negative side effects are born by individuals spread over the globe and over very long time horizons. Since the externality extends across borders, a global collective-action problem arises with incentives for individual countries to free-ride on the climate policies by others. The volume contains five papers with associated comments which were originally presented at a conference in Stockholm on 24 October 2018.

Planning Systems and Legislation for Brownfield Development in the Central Baltic Countries

Brownfield redevelopment is an important topic in Europe, where many countries and cities are experiencing rapid urbanisation. It is predicted that by 2020 approximately 80 per cent of Europeans will be living in urban areas, which means that more land in and around urban areas will need to be developed for housing and other purposes. The aim of this brochure is to enable experiences of brownfield redevelopment to be exchanged between the Central Baltic countries (Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Sweden) by providing knowledge about the conditions for brownfield redevelopment in each country. The brochure presents the planning systems and principal legislation and policies related to brownfield redevelopment. It specifically highlights the aforementioned key challenges of cooperation between actors and the remediation of contaminated land, and looks at how domestic legislation and policies promote or hinder meeting those challenges. This brochure is published as part of the Baltic Urban Lab project, which involves four partner cities (Riga, Tallinn, Turku and Norrköping) developing and testing new integrated planning and partnership models for brownfield redevelopment. The partners are aiming to find ways to tackle the various challenges brought about by the development of sites that are often privately owned or have fragmented ownership structures and where the soil is often severely contaminated and thereby requires significant resources for remediation. The planning reviews in the brochure are drafted by Nordregio with valuable expert input from, in particular, the city partners and the associated partner, the Swedish National Board for Housing, Building and Planning.

Regional Innovations: an introduction to concepts, practices and politics

Innovations is a policy buzz word and used more or less daily within the political debate. Innovations are regarded as fundamental for achieving economic, social and ecological sustainability. This booklet is an introduction guide to the concept, practices and politics of innovations with focus on its relevance for regional development. Innovations are expected to generate new firms and employment opportunities, increased competitiveness, and contribute growth, in Sweden and elsewhere. They are also perceived as crucial for handling climate change, resource scarcity and demographical challenges such as an ageing population and increased migration in Europe. But what is an innovation? How and where are innovations created? And how can regional innovation polices be formulated and implemented in a globalizing world? These are some of the key questions of this booklet, which also highlights concepts such as eco-innovation, social innovations, and smart specialisation. An open and inclusive definition innovations are currently being emphasised as for example in the recently published Swedish Innovation Strategy. Innovations are created by people and generates new values. An innovation can be anything from new technical products or service processes to a significantly improved business models or new forms of organisational and institutional arrangements. This conceptualisation of innovations creates opportunities and challenges policy making. Amongst other things, it implies that regions need position themselves in relation to other regions nationally and internationally, and simultaneously develop context specific innovation strategies and priorities. The booklet offers an introduction to current discourse on innovation by reviewing a selection of essential policy documents from leading international and national organisations such as OECD, EU and Swedish national authorities. It does not offer a new theory on innovation or suggestions on how to innovation policies should be formulated, but it provides an conceptual overview, practical thematic and regional examples on innovations and innovation policies.

Samhällsplanering för jämställd trygghet. Fallstudier från Finland, Österrike, Storbritannien och Baltikum

Samhällsplanering för jämställd trygghet – Fallstudier från Finland, Österrike, Storbritannien och Baltikum. Commisioned by Boverket (Unpublished) Bakgrunden till rapporten Samhällsplanering för jämställd trygghet är att re-geringen i oktober 2008 gav Boverket och länsstyrelserna i uppdrag att stödja ett konkret utvecklingsarbete för att stärka tryggheten i stads- och tätortsmiljöer ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv. En del i detta arbete har varit att se över kunskapsläget i ämnet. Som ett led i det gav Boverket Nordregio i uppdrag att genomföra en förstudie om olika länders arbete med trygghet i stads- och tät-ortsmiljöer ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv. Det resulterade i en fortsatt studie av fyra länders arbete. Resultatet presenteras i den här rapporten. Rapporten ger en bild av hur arbetet med trygghet ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv ser ut utanför Sverige. Den är uppbyggd kring fyra fallstudier, från Finland, Litauen, Storbritannien respektive Österrike. Fallstudierna är relativt fristående från varandra, beroende på att jämställdhets- och planeringssituationen ser olika ut i de olika länderna. Innehållet är intressant på flera vis och har något att ge för flera målgrupper. Både för de som arbetar på teoretiskt nivå men även till samhällsplanerarna ute på fältet. Fallen kan fungera som inspiration för hur det går att arbeta i olika situationer. Det är också intressant att se att det finns olika perspektiv på trygghet, vilket i sin tur påverkar arbetet med trygghet ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv.

Climate Change and the North Atlantic

Provides a comprehensive insight into the consequences of climate change for the North Atlantic region. The book takes a special look at regional consequences with regard to the sea, the land, the people, the natural living resources, transport and geopolitics. NORA 2009. Most public discussions on climate change – and the potential ecological and economic impacts these may have – are focusing on the ongoing build-up of industrial greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and a gradual increase in global temperatures. Based on the trends and tendencies, the conclusions often emphasize that present developments are moving towards an unprecedented situation that is a challenge to the world’s population. The discussion about the impacts of climate change in the North is often one-dimensional, identifying very simple cause and effect relationships and pointing to a unique situation, tending to ignore other mechanisms and potentially disruptive climate scenarios. At the same time, the current debate tends to ignore historical and pre-historical evidence demonstrating that the Earth’s climate repeatedly has shifted abruptly and dramatically and that it is capable of doing so in the future. Similarly, the discussions tend to ignore that populations throughout the existence of the human species on the globe often have managed to cope with the changes and through ingenuity and insight adjusted to the new situations. The North Atlantic region in the past has faced challenges that have been comparable to the present situation, and it has coped with these challenges. In many situations, it led to marked changes in the way life was lived, sometimes prompting remarkable innovation, and at other times leading to drastic measures and sudden actions. CLIMATE CHANGE – AND THE NORTH ATLANTIC provides a comprehensive insight into the consequences of climate change for the North Atlantic region. The book takes a special look at regional…

Regional trajectories to the knowledge economy – Nordic-European comparisons

In the report “Regional trajectories to the knowledge economy – Nordic-European comparisons” the main results of the REKENE project are presented. The main objective of the REKENE project as well as the mother project EURODITE has been to investigate how knowledge is generated, developed and transferred within and among firms or organisations and their regional contexts in order to gain a better understanding of how policies may be developed and used to facilitate knowledge dynamics. Furthermore, a specific aim of the REKENE project has been to deliver a policy toolkit regarding knowledge dynamics and innovation. In the REKENE project, we have investigated knowledge dynamics in seven regions in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden. We have been able to compare our results with those from the 22 regions studied within the EURODITE project. The main findings regarding knowledge dynamics can be summarised in three key points. Firstly, cross-sectoral knowledge interactions drawing on different disciplines and fields of expertise are innovative and drive product development. Secondly, knowledge interactions are multiscalar; they include highly relevant extra-regional knowledge interactions. Multiscalar interactions are supported by policy instruments, ranging from cluster organisations to support for organising and participation in various events. Finally, knowledge dynamics include many types of actors conducting a variety of knowledge interactions. The REKENE toolkit consists of two types of interrelated items, tasks and tools, which are necessary to master in order to harness knowledge dynamics.