The social impacts of climate mitigation policies on vulnerable groups in the Nordic Region
This discussion paper analyses the Nordic just green transition from the perspective of a set of target social groups, including unemployed persons and those at risk of unemployment, older adults, children and persons with disabilities. Based on a diverse literature review, comprising peer-reviewed academic papers, legal documents and unpublished reports, the report explores how climate mitigation policies may impact these social groups, both positively and negatively, and thereby sheds light on how such policies may contribute to a just green transition in a Nordic context. This report is part of Not Just a Green Transition – Examining the path towards a socially just green transition in the Nordic Region (NJUST), a Nordic research project funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The report contextualises the notion of a just green transition in the Nordic Region, and elaborates on how climate policies can be implemented in such a way that the transition does not negatively harm vulnerable groups in society.
Just Green Transition – key concepts and implications in the Nordic Region
This discussion paper is based on a literature review of the just green transition in a Nordic, European and OECD setting, via the lens of three interrelated dimensions within this concept: transition, green economy and social justice. Like all countries around the world, the Nordic countries are facing climate change and the transition towards a more sustainable future. All Nordic countries and self-governing territories are in the process of implementing national, regional and local strategies and policies aimed at mitigating climate change and its effects on society. The transition to a more sustainable future has implications for the economy, for example different economic sectors and their composition and how we interact with and govern natural resources and biodiversity. This process is often referred to as the green transition. One key component of the green transition is how it can unfold in a just way that protects communities, territories and specific social groups from the potential negative consequences of such policies – or enables their involvement in or empowerment by such processes. The discussion paper starts by outlining the aim and the guiding questions. There then follows a section presenting the research methods and sources of material. Section 4 presents a review of the concepts transition, green economy and social justice, along with an overview of the overarching concept of the just green transition. This is followed by a discussion of its key implications in the Nordic Region. The section concludes with proposals for working definitions of concepts for the NJUST project.
Welfare institutes in sparsely populated areas
This working paper is a part of Welfare institutes in sparsely populated areas (WIiSPA) project. The overall purpose of it is to clarify and determine the definition of WIiSPA and identify WIiSPA actors in sparsely populated areas (SPAs) in the Nordic Region and beyond. Underpinning the concept of WIiSPA is the belief that the stable provision of health and social care services is crucial for regional development. In other words, a well-functioning welfare sector with effective and accessible services is a prerequisite for regional growth across different sectors in SPAs. Another important objective is to promote the development and revitalisation of welfare services in rural areas through networking and knowledge-sharing with other WIiSPA actors across the Nordic Region. Since SPAs in the Nordic countries often face similar challenges, this pan-Nordic WIiSPA network would facilitate the implementation of results and recommendations based on Nordic welfare and regional development projects. WIiSPAs would benefit from the experiences of projects like iHAC/iVOPD, which in turn would contribute to the development of health care and social care services in SPAs of the Nordic Region – with a focus on distance spanning solutions, integration of health and social care services, and recruitment and skills supply. This working paper aims to shed light on the following project objectives: What components, stakeholders, and visions could constitute a WIiSPA; what elements are necessary for creating a WIiSPA? (Definition of WIiSPA) Identifying existing and potential WIiSPA clusters in the Nordic countries and beyond; their prerequisites, strengths, and eventual lack of components for creating a WIiSPA (Mapping of WIiSPA) How could a network of identified WIiSPA clusters best be developed? (WIiSPA network) The results of this working paper are based on academic research, short interviews, and roundtable discussions. The material includes academic articles, information from websites and notes from discussions with local stakeholders. The concept…
Synergies between Nordic studies on resilience, digitalisation, smart specialisation and skills development
Regional (economic and social) resilience determines how capable the regional economies are to cope with change (negative or positive shocks or stress) and continue to develop. Regional resilience is achieved through regional actions that turn global perspectives into strengths and opportunities. Generally speaking, regional resilience is adesirable place to be in, and this should be supported by all different policies and regional actions. Rather than being and end result, regional resilience should be seen as a continuous effort of addressing and adapting to global trends and other developments that may threaten the economy and social wellbeing. Global drivers such as demographic trends and industrial changes, sustainable development, and green transition, need to be met in Nordic regions through place-based actions. Smart specialisation strategies, skills development, and actions supporting the digital transition are examples of place-based actions that strengthen regional resilience. This dynamic state of being reflects the Nordic Vision 2030 of a green, competitive and socially sustainable Nordic region. In addition to synergies between the major themes, the study also revealed topics of high common relevance for all themes of the TG2 work. These relate to the importance of bridging across governance levels and sectors and finding new models for leadership and engagement. This section explores the more general regional development measures needed to support the development towards innovative and resilient regions.
Klimatomställningen och relationen stad och land
Denna rapport syftar till att ge ett kunskapsunderlag om hur stad och landsbygd i Norden påverkas av klimatomställningen och vilken effekt detta har på sammanhållningen i Norden. Trots skillnader mellan stad och land när det gäller befolkningsutveckling, utbildning och inkomst, ser vi att utvecklingen skiljer sig mer mellan olika typer av städer och olika typer av landsbygder än mellan stad och land i sig. Det är i allt väsentligt dessa ekonomiska utvecklingsmönster som skapar olika förutsättningar för att leva och verka i olika delar av Norden. Vi finner här mycket lite som indikerar att polariseringen mellan stad och land generellt ökar. Däremot ser vi att inkomstskillnaderna inom kommunerna ökar, vilket pekar på att det snarare är skillnaderna mellan olika socio-ekonomiska grupper i samhället som ökar än skillnaderna mellan stad och land. Vi finner också indikationer på att tilliten till samhällets institutioner är minskande hos socio-ekonomiskt svagare grupper i samhället, samt hos dem som redan har låg tillit till samhället.Europeisk forskning kring den så kallade missnöjets geografi (geography of discontent) visar att en ökad andel röster på antietablissemangspartier,framförallt uppstår i områden med långvarig ekonomisk nedgång. Åtgärder som syftar till att minska koldioxidutsläppen, till exempel ökad beskattning av fossila bränslen för transporter, ökad andel fossilfri el och vindkraft, eller åtgärder för att öka konsumtionen av utsläppsfria och resurseffektiva varor och tjänster, kan få olika effekter – både positiva och negativa – för olika sociala grupper och för invånare i stad och på landsbygd. För att få en bättre förståelse för effekterna av klimatpolitiska åtgärder, finns behov av mer systematiska genomlysningar av hur klimatpolitiken slår mot olika geografiska områden och/ eller sociala grupper i samhället. De nordiska regionerna är här en relevant analysnivå för att analyseraklimatpolitikens effekter, men regionerna är också en viktig aktör i klimatomställningen – med närhet till invånarna och vana…
Marint Gränsforum Skagerrak – delutvärdering
Projektet Marint Gränsforum Skagerrak syftar till att skapa förutsättning för marin näringslivsutveckling i Skagerrak. Projektet startade i januari 2019, vilket innebär att det varit igång i ett år när denna första delutvärdering genomfördes. Projektet som finansieras av Interreg löper 2019-2021. Projektägare är Svinesundskommittén, Viken Fylkeskommune, Göteborgs universitet/ Tjärnö marinbiologiska laboratorium och Länsstyrelsen Västra Götaland. Projektet Marint Gränsforum Skagerrak bygger vidare på en rad tidigare projekt i området, inklusive Interreg-projektet ”Framtiden är blå 1+2”. Det syftar till att främja utveckling av nya näringar som baseras på havets resurser och för att uppnå detta ändamål, bygga samverkan mellan näringsliv, förvaltningsorganisationer och forskning i gränsregionen. Projektet har under det första året kommit igång väl med olika aktiviteter, men har också viktiga utmaningar som bör hanteras för att projektet ska nå de långsiktiga målen och skapa ett friskt och produktivt Skagerrak.
Kompetensbehov för Smart specialisering i Värmland
I Region Värmland pågår arbetet med att ta fram en ny regional utvecklingsstrategi, en kompetensförsörjningsstrategi och en ny strategi för smart specialisering. Nordregio har fått i uppdrag av Region Värmland att göra en genomlysning av kompetensförsörjningsbehov inom områdena för Värmlands forsknings- och innovationsstrategi för smart specialisering som löper under perioden 2015 – 2020.
Polar Peoples in the Future: Projections of the Arctic Populations
Projections of the future size, composition and distribution of the populations of the Arctic states and regions are useful for policymakers for planning purposes. This paper presents and analyses the most recent population projections undertaken for the Arctic states and regions. Global population growth is projected to continue rising, from the current total of 7.4 billion to 10 billion in 2055. The population of the Arctic, as defined here, is predicted to change little, with a projected population increase of just 1%. However, there will be considerable variation in growth rates among the Arctic regions. Among the Arctic regions of Alaska, Yukon, Nunavut, Iceland, Troms, Khanty-Mansiy okrug and Chukotka, substantial population increases are projected, amounting to more than 10% over the projection period specified for each. Nordland, Finnmark, Pohjoil-Pohjanmaa (North Ostrobothnia) and Nenets autonomous okrug are projected to experience a more modest rate of growth of between 5% and 10%. The population of the Northwest Territories, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Västerbotten, Norrbotten, Lappi, Yamal-Nenets okrug, Yakutia and Kamchatka oblast are projected to remain roughly the same, neither growing nor declining by more than 5%. Kainuu in Finland, Karelia, Komi, Arkhangel’sk, Murmansk, and Magadan in Russia are projected to undergo reductions in population of more than 5% each. Common trends identified for nearly all Arctic regions in the future are aging populations, more balanced gender ratios between men and women, increased concentrations of population within larger urban settlements, and the depopulation of smaller settlements. Research for this article is part of a project entitled Polar Peoples: Past, Present, and Future. This is supported by a grant from the U. S. National Science Foundation, Arctic Social Sciences Program (award number PLR-1418272). I would like to thank Olivia Napper, graduate student in the Department of Geography at George Washington University, for creating the…
Nationella lagar och regler i arbetet med stadsgrönska i Norden
I denna kortversion av en nyligen publicerad rapport sammanfattas de nordiska ländernas legala ramverk avseende möjligheterna för att utveckla, bevara och skydda gröna värden i städer. Alltfler människor flyttar till städerna som blir allt tätare. Därmed blir det extra viktigt att städernas gröna värden utvecklas, bevaras och skyddas. Dessa gröna värden fyller flera syften, såsom att bibehålla eller utveckla städernas ekosystem och inte minst som gröna rekreationsrum för befolkningen. Gröna värden i städer fyller inte bara miljömässiga syften, utan även sociala och ekonomiska – till exempel ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv. I de nordiska länderna spelar planlagstiftningen en viktig roll, eftersom den reglerar mark- och vattenanvändningen. Plansystemens legala ramverk är ett viktigt instrument för kommunerna i deras ambitioner att skapa grönare städer.
Atlas of population, society and economy in the Arctic
The Atlas of Population, Society and Economy in the Arctic provides an in-depth overview of the changes that are affecting populations in the circumpolar North. Continuous environmental, economic and social changes are currently underway in the Arctic regions. Global warming, for example, is challenging traditional livelihoods, accessibility and economic activities. The atlas presents a collection of standardised indicators that illustrate the state of the Arctic regions focusing on demography, society, economy, production, accessibility and infrastructure as well as physical conditions and resources in the Arctic. As part of Nunataryuk’s research, this working paper examines the environmental challenges related to permafrost by combining geographical data with demographic data in order to describe coastal and inland settlements. Permafrost thaw is a challenge for many Arctic communities, as it has an impact on infrastructure, economy and the health of Arctic populations.
Nordic Population in 2040 – Executive summary
How strong is the urbanization trend in the Nordics in the long haul? Will the rural areas be depopulated by 2040? This is the executive summary of the report The Nordic Population in 2040 – Analysis of past and future demographic trends. The findings show that the rural areas in the Nordic region face several demographic challenges, but at the same time the rural future does not seem as grim as often predicted. The population and the working age population will continue to grow in the Nordic Region, but the fastest growth will occur in the old-age dependency ratio challenging the Nordic welfare model with a growing group of pensioners compared to the working age population. The report is divided into three sections: projections of total urban and rural populations, projections of the age structure of the population, and projections of the working age populations. If the expected future differs from what is desired, policy interventions can be designed and implemented to attempt to achieve the desired population outcome. This research examines the future size and age composition of the populations in the Nordic region at the national, regional, and municipal levels. The national statistical offices of all the Nordic countries and autonomous areas regularly produce projections of their populations which differ in detail, assumptions, and length of the projection period. To allow comparison across the Nordic regions, a typology of urban and rural regions is used with five different types of regions 1) predominantly urban regions, 2) intermediate regions, close to a city 3) intermediate regions, remote 4) predominantly rural regions, close to a city and 5) predominantly rural regions, remote. This classification is adopted from the OECD and is used throughout the report. In depth analysis can be found in the original report The Nordic Population in 2040…
Demografisk sårbarhet 2019
En gemensam utmaning för kommunerna längs riksgränsen mellan Norge och Sverige Studien visar att den demografiska sårbarheten har ökat i många kommuner, framför allt på grund av en åldrande befolkning och fortsatt urbanisering. Immigrationen är en motsatt positiv kraft, som emellertid inte förmår att balansera de negativa effekterna av åldrande och utflyttning till de större städerna. De relativt få men intressanta exemplen som bryter mönstret är de kommuner som har tillgång eller närhet till högre utbildning och de vars arbetsmarknad karakteriseras av ungdomsattraktiva branscher. 2011 presenterade Nordregio med hjälp av ett så kallat demografiskt sårbarhetsindex en bild vilka befolkningsmässiga utmaningar som regioner och kommuner i Norden står inför. Nu, 8 år senare, har bilden uppdaterats, men med särskild fokus på de kommuner ligger utmed den 1630 km långa riksgränsen mellan Norge och Sverige, eftersom uppdateringen har gjorts på uppdrag av Svensk-norska samarbetsfonden.
From Migrants to Workers: International migration trends in the Nordic countries
The populations of the Nordic countries are ageing, and to maintain economic growth there is a need to increase immigration and have these newcomers play a substantial role in the labour markets at the national and regional levels. This paper is one of several outputs of a project called From Migrants to Workers: Immigrants’ Role in Local Labour Markets in the Nordic Region for the 2013–2016 Nordic Working Group on Demography and Welfare (Nordregio, 2016). This paper analyses data on recent migration flows into the Nordic countries. Another working paper analysed case studies of the process of integration in selected Nordic regions (Harbo, Heleniak, & Hildestrand, 2017). The paper also provides additional detail for the chapter on migration in the State of the Nordic Region 2018 report. The paper starts by examining migration trends into the Nordic countries over recent decades, examining migration as a component of population change, immigration and emigration, net migration by citizenship, net migration by sex, immigration by country of origin, total population of foreign origin, foreign-born people by age, reasons for migration, and flows of refugees and asylum seekers. The conclusions concern the implications of the integration of recent flows.
From migrants to workers: Regional and local practices on integration of labour migrants and refugees in rural areas in the Nordic countries
The increase in immigration has been especially large since 2000, driven in part by several expansions of the European Union. At the same time, some of the Nordic countries have been the destination of large numbers of asylum seekers and refugees. While there has been increased immigration into the Nordic countries, there has been also population decline and rapid population ageing in the remote rural regions, outside of the large urban centres. This publication reports on the outcomes of a project which addresses regional and local practices on integration of labour migrants and refugees in six rural areas across the Nordic countries. The project was commissioned by the Nordic Working Group on Demography and Welfare under the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Senior Officials for Regional Policy, and carried out by Nordregio.
Reindeer husbandry in Sápmi: How can we support a prosperous future for reindeer herding through research?
This report summarises and categorises those studies that have focused on socio-economic aspects of reindeer husbandry. The Nordic Joint Committee for Agricultural and Food Research (NKJ) has commissioned Nordregio to provide an overview of research completed within the last 10 years in the field of reindeer husbandry in the Nordic countries. Based on the literature overview and consultations with the experts and researchers, the report then provides a platform for proposals for further research that may be carried out within the NKJ framework.
Policies and measures for speeding up labour market integration of refugees in the Nordic region: A knowledge overview
It takes on average five to ten years for a refugee to find work in the Nordic countries. As social inclusion is closely linked to successful labour market integration, and as during this period the refugee represents a cost to society, the question of how to ensure access to the labour market has been a prominent issue on the political agenda. Since the countries show both differences and similarities in their migration policies and practical solutions, the question is how we can learn from each other. In 2016 the Nordic Council of Ministers initiated a co-operation programme designed to support the national efforts on integration of refugees and immigrants. The Nordic Welfare Centre has the overall responsibility for the main project “Nordic collaboration on integration of refugees and migrants” in close collaboration with Nordregio. The aim of the project is to serve as an idea bank on the integration area, to map out existing knowledge and research, and to expand our common knowledge base on integration. This report was produced by Nordregio on behalf of the Nordic Welfare Centre and is the result of a comparative study of policies and measures in place in the countries for achieving more efficient labour market integration of refugees. A short version of the report is also available as a policy brief (in Swedish). Read more about the Nordic integration project at www.integrationnorden.org
Bioenergy Development in Finland and Sweden
The cases of North Karelia, Jämtland, and Västernorrland This working paper looks into rural bioenergy development in Finland and Sweden. It is one of the outputs of the TRIBORN project: Triple Bottom Line Outcomes for Bioenergy Development and Innovation in Rural Norway. The project investigates how to increase the production of bioenergy in ways that promote sustainable rural development understood as positive economic, social and environmental outcomes. The Working Paper provided valuable input into the development of the Policy recommendations on Bioenergy and rural development in Europe (Nordregio Policy Brief 2017:3). The TRIBORN (Securing triple bottom line outcomes from bioenergy development and innovation in rural Norway, project no 233640/E50) is a research project funded by the Research Council of Norway (2014-2017). Read more about the TRIBORN project.
LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS FORMATION: The potential of local food initiatives in the Baltic Sea Region
In recent years, there has been growing interest in ‘alternative’ and ‘local’ food supply chains as a way to reduce externalities associated with mainstream food systems. ‘Alternative’ food chains are often built on values opposed to conventional industrial agriculture. They are small in scale, do not use pesticides, are close to consumers and have a distinctive place of origin. There are many different forms of alternative food systems. Common to these practices is the intention to reconnect producers and consumers, to increase transparency, to relocalize agricultural and food production, and to build trust among actors in the food system. This working paper describes the state of play of local food initiatives in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) by examining EU and national policy contexts and by highlighting good practices of local food initiatives in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and Belarus. The working paper investigates the key drivers and factors impeding the development of these initiatives. The working paper is based on desk studies, input received during meetings with stakeholders and researchers from the BSR, and interviews with good practice initiators in 2016–17. This working paper is one output of the Local food: Formation of local food markets project financed by the Swedish Institute. The overall aim of the project was to strengthen co-operation and to build knowledge of local food system formation by various actors working on rural development issues in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Another objective of the project was to investigate and share good practices in building, shaping, reproducing and promoting alternative food networks and markets over time and space in the BSR countries (Sweden, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Belarus).
Perspectives on labour mobility in the Nordic-Baltic region
Mobility trends between the Baltic and Nordic states and different national policy approaches to the increased mobility in the macro-region. This publication is one outcome of a project on labour mobility between the Nordic-Baltic countries: “Enhanced Nordic-Baltic co-operation on challenges of labour mobility in the Nordic-Baltic region” that the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Office in Lithuania led during 2014-2016 in co-operation with the the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Offices in Estonia and Latvia, and Nordregio in Sweden. The overall objective of the project was to facilitate understanding and strengthen co-operation within the Nordic-Baltic region on labour mobility and demographic development across Nordic and Baltic municipalities and regions. While the main interest in this publication as well as in the project behind it has been on labour mobility —with labour mobility being understood as cross-border movement of workers within the Nordic-Baltic region—this distinction of people moving for job purposes solely is, both in statistics and policies, not easily distinguished from those moving for other reasons,such as family reunification, opportunities to study abroad, etc. These categories are also fluid, since the prime reason for living away from one’s country of birth may change over time or even overlap with others from the outset. Another issue is that not all movements between two Member States are registered. People moving for a shorter time than the national requirements for registration in the population data bases are not included, nor are those working on a temporary basis in another country. A previous Nordic study on labour migration to the Nordic countries from the new Member States during the period 2004-2011 estimates that when including workers on temporary stay, the numbers should be almost doubled (Friberg & Eldring, 2013). Therefore, the presented data on Baltic migrants is to provide an overview of the trends of mobility…
Social innovation in local development: Lessons from the Nordic countries and Scotland
This publication reports on the outcomes of a project that explores the role of social innovation in local development in the Nordic countries and Scotland. One aim of the project has been to develop a platform for investigating conceptual, empirical and policy developments in relation to social innovation with a focus on tackling societal problems in demographically vulnerable regions and municipalities across the Nordics. As part of the project, an online platform about Social Innovation in Local Development has been developed. This report brings together the three main components from the web platform. To provide an understanding of the concept, the first part presents a review analysing the abundant literature on social innovation that specifically relates to rural and remote areas that are facing demographic challenges. The second part is a review of the policy context of the Nordic countries and Scotland and describes how social innovation sits within, and is modified by, national and local governance arrangements and policy. The third part provides a brief overview of the lessons learned from the 23 examples of social innovation in local development and the channels of financial and advisory support.