Change in new registered cars 2019-2020
The map shows the change in new registered passenger cars from 2019 to 2020. In most countries, the number of car registrations fell in 2020 compared to 2019. On a global scale, it is estimated that sales of motor vehicles fell by 14%. In the EU, passenger car registrations during the first three quarters of 2020 dropped by 28.8%. The recovery of consumption during Q4 2020 brought the total contraction for the year down to 23.7%, or 3 million fewer cars sold than in 2019. In the Nordic countries, consumer behaviour was consistent overall with the EU and the rest of the world. However, Iceland, Sweden, Finland, Åland, and Denmark recorded falls of 22%–11% – a far more severe decline than Norway, where the market only fell by 2.0%. The Faroe Islands was the only Nordic country to record more car registrations, up 15.8% in 2020 compared to 2019. In Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, there were differences in car registrations in different parts of the country. In Sweden and Finland, the position was more or less the same in the whole of the country, with only a few municipalities sticking out. In Finland and Sweden, net increases in car registrations were concentrated in rural areas, while in major urban areas, such as Uusimaa-Nyland in Finland and Västra Götaland and Stockholm in Sweden, car sales fell between 10%–22%. Net increases in Norway were recorded in many municipalities throughout the whole country in 2020 compared to 2019.
Change in work travels Jan-Feb 2020 compared to Nov 2021
The map shows changes in number of people travelling to work in the Nordic municipalities with the biggest populations comparing November 2021 to a pre-pandemic baseline. The map compares the average number of people who travelled to work on a weekday in January and February 2020 with the number of people who travelled to work on 11 November 2021 in the ten largest cities of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The date was selected as the reference date as it is considered to be a relatively typical Thursday. It also represents a point when few movement restrictions were in place in the Nordic countries. As can be seen from the map, all of the municipalities highlighted recorded a fall in work-related travel on 11 November compared to the pre-pandemic baseline. It was biggest in Stavanger (-36%), followed by Stockholm (-31%), Oulu (-30%), Bærum (adjacent to Oslo) (-29%), Frederiksberg (adjacent to Copenhagen) (-29%) and Helsinki (-29%). In general, the decrease was highest around the capital regions and larger cities, but there were exceptions, for example, Jyväskylä (-26%), Örebro (-25%), Jönköping (-21%), and Randers (-20%). Several large municipalities also stood out because their patterns did not change so much, for example, Helsingborg (-3%) and Västerås (-7%) in Sweden; Viborg (-3%) and Odense (-8%) in Denmark.
Cross-border commuting as share of employment
The map illustrates the average share of employees who commuted to another Nordic country between between 2015 and 2018 in Nordic regions (NUTS 2). Between 2015 and 2018, an average of approximately 49,000 people held a job in a Nordic country in which they were not residents. This indicates that, on average, 0.5% of the Nordic working-age population commuted to a job in another Nordic country. This is below the EU27 average of 1%, with the highest numbers found in Slovakia (5.1%), Luxembourg (2.8%) and Estonia (2.6%). Some of these people cross borders daily. Others work in another country by means of remote working combined with occasional commuting across borders. Within the Nordic Region, the largest cross-border commuter flows are in the southernmost parts of Sweden, regions in the middle of Sweden and in Åland, where more than 1% of the working population commutes to another Nordic country. However, there may be individual municipalities where cross-border commuting is substantially higher. For example, the employment rate in Årjäng Municipality, Sweden, increases by 15 percentage points when cross-border commuting is taken into account. These municipalities are not reflected on NUTS 2 level when averages are calculated. In terms of absolute numbers in 2015, the highest numbers of commuters were from Sweden: Sydsverige (16,543), Västsverige (7,899) and Norra Mellansverige (6,890). The highest number of commuters from a non-Swedish region were from Denmark’s Hovedstaden (2,583). Due to legislative barriers regarding the exchange of statistical data on cross-border commuting between the Nordic countries, more recent data is not available.
Work mobility per municipality and region by quarter
The map shows the percentage change for work mobility in Nordic regions and municipalities compared to a pre-pandemic baseline. The maps compare Nordic mobility patterns in each quarter of 2020 and 2021 with a pre-pandemic baseline. Based on Google data, the panels illustrate the impact of national restrictions and how those restrictions hampered work mobility. As the restrictions were both national and regional in nature, some regions and municipalities were more affected than others. The darker areas in the map show that work mobility decreased the most Q2 and Q3 2020 and in Q3 2021. The panels also show that mobility decreased later in Sweden than in the other Nordic countries. However, the decrease in Q3 in both 2020 and 2021 may partly be explained by the summer vacation months, when work mobility tends to decrease anyway. In Q4 2021, the overall situation seems to improve, although the pattern is mixed. In a few municipalities the situation is almost back to pre-pandemic baseline while in most municipalities, there is still less mobility in the labour market compared to the pre-pandemic situation.
Change in share of biofuels in transport from 2010 to 2018
This map shows change in share of biofuels in final energy consumption in transport in the Nordic Arctic and Baltic Sea Region from 2010 to 2018. Even though a target for greater use of biofuels has been EU policy since the Renewable Energy and Fuel Quality Directives of 2009, development has been slow. The darker shades of blue on the map represent higher increase, and the lighter shades of blue reflect lower increase. The lilac color represent decrease. The Baltic Sea represents a divide in the region, with countries to the north and west experiencing growth in the use of biofuels for transport in recent years. Sweden stands out (16 per cent growth), while the other Nordic countries has experienced more modest increase. In the southern and eastern parts of the region, the use of biofuels for transport has largely stagnated. Total biofuel consumption for transport has risen more than the figure indicates due to an increase in transport use over the period.
Share of biofuels in transport in 2018
This map shows the share of biofuels in final energy consumption in transport in the Nordic Arctic and Baltic Sea Region in 2018. There has been considerable political support for biofuels and in the EU, this debate has been driven by the aim of reducing dependency on imported fuels. For instance, 10 per cent of transport fuel should be produced from renewable sources. The darker shades on the map represent higher proportions, and the lighter shades reflect lower proportions. As presented by the map, only Sweden (20.7%) had reached the 10 per cent target in the Nordic Arctic and Baltic Region in 2018. Both Finland (8.3%) and Norway (8.3%) were close by the target, while the other countries in the region were still lagging behind, particularly the Baltic countries.
Cross-border commuters as a share of total employees in the Nordic Region 2015
The map shows the share of cross border commuters in the total employees with residence in a NUTS2 Nordic Region in 2015. The darker the blue, the higher the share. For the most NUTS2 regions in the Nordic, the percent is lower than 0,5%, indicating the commuting workers are the absolute minority in the total employed people. Åland (2,6%) and the South Sweden region (2,7%) stand out with more than 2% of employees in the region commuting cross-border for work. The destination country for Åland workers is Sweden, while for Swedish workers living in the south is Denmark. The commuting pattern is also apparent for the Swedish NUTS2 regions along the border line with Norway, with relatively higher percent of cross border workers commuting to Norway compared with other Nordic NUTS2 regions. At a finer scale (e.g., NUTS3) would show higher percentages in a number of regions, e.g., by taking only the NUTS 3 region – Skåne instead of the NUTS 2 region South Sweden (Skåne+Blekinge) or the border regions between NO and SE.
Cross-border commuters to other Nordic countries for work 2015
The map builds on statistics of cross-border commuters with residence in a NUTS2 Nordic region commute for work in 2015. For each NUTS2 region, the map shows the total number of commuters who commute to other Nordic countries for work. The number of commuters is categorised into three groups visualised in different shades: the darker, the higher the number of commuters. In addition, the most common country these commuters commute to from each region is identified by specific colours. For example, the darkest red indicates a region with at least 2,000 commuters working in another Nordic country, of which the largest group number of commuters works in Denmark. The most commuters were from the region of South Sweden (16 543) in 2015, and the majority of them commuted to Denmark for work. Norway is the most popular destination for work commuters in the Nordic Region, e.g., all Swedish regions except for the South Sweden region, all the regions in Denmark except for the Copenhagen region, and Iceland. Sweden is more attractive for work commuters living in Finland, Copenhagen region, and bordering regions in Norway.
Travel time by train from Copenhagen or Malmö
The travel times indicate the fastest morning connection outbound from Copenhagen Central Station or Malmö Central Station, departing after 6:30AMand arriving before 9:00AM. The station catchments are calculated by bicycle travel time for any time remaining beyond train travel. For instance, a 35-minute train ride and a 10-minute cycle ride results in a 45-minute total travel time. The shades of green indicate the travel time to other train stations and their surrounding areas in four main classes: up to 15 minutes, 16 to 30 minutes, 31 to 45 minutes and 46 to 60 minutes. The areas not highlighted in green on the map are further than one hour by train from either Copenhagen or Malmö main train stations. The map clearly shows that the vast majority of areas within the Capital Region of Denmark, a number of stations and areas which are part of the region of Zealand, for instance Slagelse and Næstved, as well as areas located along four main train corridors in Skåne (Malmö-Helsingborg, Malmö-Hässleholm, Malmö-Trelleborg and Malmö-Ystad) are within the one-hour travel time by train from/to Copenhagen and/or Malmö, thanks to the different train types (Öresund trains, regional trains and intercity trains). Areas of the GCR which are beyond the one-hour travel condition are the most northern part of the Capital Region of Denmark, the southern and western parts of Zealand (e.g. Kalundborg and Vordingborg) as well as most of the eastern half part of Skåne. In terms of population, the current situation provides this possibility to almost 3 million out of 4.3 million inhabitants, corresponding to 69% of the total population living in the Greater Copenhagen Region in 2020. The proportion of the total population increases to 75% when the region of Halland is excluded (as this was not initially part of the GCR when the…
Mobility changes due to COVID-19
This map shows the difference in mobility to workplaces between a weekday (April 23rd, 2020) and the corresponding weekday during the period January 7th to February 6th, 2020 (in percent). The data highlights the percent change in visits to workplaces within each administrative region in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Data is not available for the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland and Åland. Read more about the data here. The average value of the Nordic regions included in the map is a reduction by 34% of the number of visits to workplaces on April 23rd (in comparison to a baseline). This average value hides large variations within the Nordic Region with the most modest change occurring in Gotland (-12%) and the most severe change in Oslo (-57%). More generally, variations can be identified both between and within countries. The variations between countries reveal differences in recommendations and restrictions from published by the different national governments. Details for each country have been gathered by Info Norden and can be found here. As a result, the change in visits to workplaces decreased by 26% in Sweden, 39% in Denmark, 41% in Norway and 47% in Finland. The variations within countries also reveal differences in government´s decisions (e.g. lockdown of the Helsinki-Uusimaa region reducing the mobility to workplaces by 53%), but not only. There are indeed a number of local characteristics of the labour markets that contribute at explaining that the largest changes in mobility to workplaces are found in capital city regions. These local characteristics are a greater dependency on public transport for commuters, who are adviced to avoid using such means of transportation under the COVID-19 context; and having a higher share of jobs that can be done by teleworking, among others.
Airports in the Arctic 2019
Long distances in combination to the lack of road and railroad connections and seasonal accessibility of water transport makes airports an important element of local accessibility in the Arctic. There are only a few large airports in the Arctic with regular air connections to national capitals or other main cities more south – or abroad – however, there is a large number of small airports. The ca. 1300 airports and heliports of the Arctic are shown on the map. Seven large and 260 medium sized airports with regular passenger traffic are the main airport infrastructure in the Arctic. Small airports are shown on the map in two categories, those with IATA code and those without. There are 265 small airports with an IATA code and most of these airports have regular air traffic. The small airports without an IATA code are 500 and comprise small airports with some scheduled traffic to airports for spare time aviation and landing sites. In addition, there are some 60 airports – mostly in the Russian Federation – that are not classified due to a lack of data regarding their size. The aviation in Greenland heavily depends on heliports. Many Greenlandic settlements are located along the shore, in small islands, fjords, or adjacent to mountains – in place where building an airport would be impossible or very expensive due to challenging physical conditions. In Greenland all the settlements have either an airport or a heliport depending on the size of the settlement and physical conditions. In other Nordic Arctic regions, the airports are located in the main settlements or in isolated islands. Almost all remaining settlements have road connection to an airport or a heliport. In the Canadian Arctic and Alaska (USA) almost all settlements have an airport. In the Russian Arctic the number of…
Sea Routes and Ports in the Arctic
The main and secondary zones for maritime traffic are based on 2017 vessel traffic data gathered on Automatic Identification System (AIS) by Marine Traffic (blue colours on map). The data shows the locations of vessels during their travels. The main transport areas are in Northern Europe – from Iceland to the Kara Sea through the Norwegian coast – and along the coast of Alaska (USA). Cargo ships as well as government vessels, including icebreakers, account for the largest share of the traffic in the Arctic. The number of tourism-related shipping activity and private yachts is increasing. The main transport corridors in the Arctic, the Northern Sea Route in the Russian Federation, the Northwest Passage in Canada and the Arctic Bridge from Canada to Europe have all experienced significant growth in the maritime traffic in the recent years. The Northern Sea Route is the shortest route between Europe and the Asia-Pacific region is competing with traditional trade lines. Between 2016 and 2017 the cargo volume in Northern Sea Route increased by nearly 40%. In the Canadian Arctic the traffic has almost tripled between 1990-2015. When it comes to the increasing maritime traffic in the Arctic, the interests of economic potentials and challenging physical conditions are balancing. Even if the sea ice coverage is decreasing, the Arctic region is still a challenging environment. In the wintertime ice floes lack predictability and the conditions vary seasonally. Traveling across multiyear ice – that can be more than three meters thick – is challenging even for icebreakers which progress better across first-year ice – less than one meter thick. Icebreaker escorts in the wintertime are not only costly but are also limiting the maximum width of the vessel escorted. During the open water season the transit is often challenging due to severe storms or heavy…
Road accessibility of Arctic settlements
The accessibility of Arctic settlements by road is illustrated in this map showing the road network in the Arctic. The distribution of permafrost is displayed as a background layer indicating physical condition underneath the road infrastructure. The road infrastructure is considerably less dense on continuous permafrost-covered land. There are road connections in the Arctic that are only open for transport during winter time, but they are not distinguished in the map. Settlements in vast area of Greenland, Nunavut, Nunavik, and Labrador (Canada) are not connected by road network but scarcely road segments connecting adjacent settlements. Thus, travel by road remains a challenge for many of the inhabitants in these regions. Alaska (USA), the Northwest Territories, and the Yukon (Canada) have better road infrastructure with some of the major road network. There, most of the settlements are accessible via roads. The road network in the Nordic Arctic regions – except Greenland – are considerably denser than in other parts of the Arctic and most of the settlements are connected to the road network. In Greenland all transportation between cities is with aircraft, helicopter or boat. In the Russian Arctic, the road network is accessible for inhabitants living in most of the settlements, except in the Krasnoyarsk region, where only road segments exist in the neighbourhood of settlements. Railways in the Arctic are sparse. A few railroads are connecting settlements in the Nordic Arctic and East Russia. There is a handful of railroads in most of the Russian Arctic, Alaska (USA), and Canada.
Saaʹmijânnam – Borders: 1949
The map shows the Skolt Sámi Land and the borders of national states in 1949. The Skolt Sámi Land is the home area for the indigenous Skolt Sámi people. During the Second World War, the Skolt Sámi land was the stage of violent acts of war. After the war, borders were again redrawn. The Soviet Union took the Petsamo area from Finland. The Skolt Sámi of Petsamo were given new settlement areas in north eastern Finland. In Norway and the Soviet Union, the Skolt Sámi remained an invisible minority. In all three countries, there was very little space for the Sámi. It took decades before the human rights of the Sámi received any attention. The map was produced for the exhibition Saaʹmijânnam – The Skolt Sámi Land in Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum in Neiden, Norway. The map is the result of a collaboration between Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum (responsible for the reconstruction of the Skolt Sámi areas and the exhibition), Yngvar Julin (concept of maps and exhibition architect), Nordregio (base maps) and Rethink. and illustrator Ruth Thomlevold (graphic design). Back to the main project page.
Saaʹmijânnam – Borders: 1920
The map shows the Skolt Sámi Land and the borders of national states in 1920. The Skolt Sámi Land is the home area for the indigenous Skolt Sámi people. The borders through the Skolt Sámi Land were redrawn after the First World War. Newly independent Finland obtained the Petsamo area and thereby access to the Arctic Ocean. The Skolt Sámi living in that area became citizens of Finland instead of Russia. In Norway, the Skolt Sámi suffered from Norwegianization. On the Russian side, the Skolt Sámi were persecuted due to Stalin’s minority group policies. It became difficult to follow seasonal migration routes, a typical of the Skolt Sámi way of life. The Skolt Sámi of Suenjel area were the only ones able to carry out this traditional lifestyle. The map was produced for the exhibition Saaʹmijânnam – The Skolt Sámi Land in Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum in Neiden, Norway. The map is the result of a collaboration between Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum (responsible for the reconstruction of the Skolt Sámi areas and the exhibition), Yngvar Julin (concept of maps and exhibition architect), Nordregio (base maps) and Rethink. and illustrator Ruth Thomlevold (graphic design). Back to the main project page.
Saaʹmijânnam – Borders: 1826
The map shows how the borders of the national states in 1826 divided the Skolt Sámi Land. The Skolt Sámi Land is the home area for the indigenous Skolt Sámi people. Drawing the borders in 1826 has had a dramatic effect on the Skolt Sámi. Neiden and Pasvik areas were divided between Norway and Russia. The Skolt Sámi lost extensive parts of their living areas and their rights. They became citizens of two countries. Due to a growing number of immigrants, the competition for resources and land increased. The map was produced for the exhibition Saaʹmijânnam – The Skolt Sámi Land in Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum in Neiden, Norway. The map is the result of a collaboration between Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum (responsible for the reconstruction of the Skolt Sámi areas and the exhibition), Yngvar Julin (concept of maps and exhibition architect), Nordregio (base maps) and Rethink. and illustrator Ruth Thomlevold (graphic design). Back to the main project page.
Saaʹmijânnam – the History: The monastery of Petsjenga and the fortress of Kola
The map shows the historical Skolt Sámi Land, the monastery of Petsjenga and the fortress of Kola. The Skolt Sámi Land is the home area for the indigenous Skolt Sámi people. The Russian tsar gave Skolt Sámi areas to the monastery of Petsjenga in 1556. The monastery operated a very successful business in reindeer herding, cooking salt and fishing. Petsjenga and Muetke sijdds were repressed under the monastery’s rule. The tsar had placed his officials at the fortress of Kola, in order to look after his interests in the northern areas. The map was produced for the exhibition Saaʹmijânnam – The Skolt Sámi Land in Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum in Neiden, Norway. The map is the result of a collaboration between Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum (responsible for the reconstruction of the Skolt Sámi areas and the exhibition), Yngvar Julin (concept of maps and exhibition architect), Nordregio (base maps) and Rethink. and illustrator Ruth Thomlevold (graphic design). Back to the main project page.
Saaʹmijânnam – the History: Taxation and borders in 14th century
The map shows some of the borders in 14th century around the Skolt Sámi Land. The Skolt Sámi Land is the home area for the indigenous Skolt Sámi people. In 1326, the treaty of Novgorod led to the Sámi being taxed twofold. The Sámi areas were under pressure from both the east and the west. Karelian and Norwegian settlements spread to the north. Karelians collected taxes from the Sámi, as they themselves were obliged to pay taxes to Novgorod. The map was produced for the exhibition Saaʹmijânnam – The Skolt Sámi Land in Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum in Neiden, Norway. The map is the result of a collaboration between Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum (responsible for the reconstruction of the Skolt Sámi areas and the exhibition), Yngvar Julin (concept of maps and exhibition architect), Nordregio (base maps) and Rethink. and illustrator Ruth Thomlevold (graphic design). Back to the main project page.
Saaʹmijânnam – the History: Assumed distribution of ethnic groups around year 500
The map shows the assumed distribution of ethnic groups in Northern Europe around year 500. The map was produced for the exhibition Saaʹmijânnam – The Skolt Sámi Land in Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum in Neiden, Norway. The map is the result of a collaboration between Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum (responsible for the reconstruction of the areas and the exhibition), Yngvar Julin (concept of maps and exhibition architect), Nordregio (base maps), Martin Skulstad, Rethink. and Ruth Thomlevold (graphic design) and Christian Carpelan (reconstruction of the areas). Back to the main project page.
Saaʹmijânnam – the Community: Location of the Skolt Sámi sijdds with water bodies and elevation
The map shows the location of the seven Skolt Sámi sijjds. The word sijdd refers both to a geographic area and to the people who use it. The Skolt Sámi are an indigenous people with a unique culture and history. In the past, the Skolt Sámi knew exactly which areas belonged to their sijdd. If necessary, the borders of the sijdd could be redrawn by oral agreements. There were strong social ties between the Skolt Sámi areas. Marriages across sijdds were common. In some places, this sijdd system continued until World War II. In the past, the Skolt Sámi moved between several dwelling sites throughout the year. During winter, all the families of the sijdd moved to a common winter settlement. The Skolt Sámi lived on fishing, hunting and gathering. They also kept some reindeer and sheep. The resources of the sijdd were considered collective property, however movables and buildings were owned by individuals. This map shows the water bodies (lakes and rivers) according to their historical extent and location, before they were dammed up or given new courses during the 20th century. The map was produced for the exhibition Saaʹmijânnam – The Skolt Sámi Land in Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum in Neiden, Norway. The map is the result of a collaboration between Äʹvv Skolt Sámi museum (responsible for the reconstruction of the Skolt Sámi areas and the exhibition), Yngvar Julin (concept of maps and exhibition architect), Nordregio (base maps) and Rethink. and illustrator Ruth Thomlevold (graphic design). Back to the main project page.