Each issue of the Nordregio Magazine provides perspectives on a specific theme related to regional development and planning in the Nordic countries. With Nordregio Magazine you are kept up to date with the interesting research results produced by Nordregio in a European and global perspective.
- 2022 January
- Nordregio magazine
- Baltic Sea Region
- Nordic Region
- Arctic issues
- Gender equality
- Green transition
- Labour market
- Maritime spatial planning
- Regional innovation
- Rural development
- Sustainable development
- Urban planning
Urban–rural flows from seasonal tourism and second homes: Planning challenges and strategies in the Nordics
Estimations for the Nordic population is that half of the 27 million inhabitants have access to a holiday home, via ownership, family or friends. People use second homes during the summer or winter season and increasingly at weekends; therefore, our analyses find that a continuous counter-urbanisation process exists in the Nordic Region. We conclude that second homes and seasonal tourists are primarily considered a positive asset for job creation, planning of cultural activities and provision of services. At the same time, the central challenges are adapting the welfare system and services to these large flows of voluntary temporary inhabitants. This motivates us to recommend policymakers and decision-makers in the Nordic Region to discuss whether municipal income taxes should be shared between municipalities, based on the locations of the permanent home and the second home. The main rationale behind this recommendation is that the infrastructure and welfare system could then be better adapted to the actual number of people who spend time in each municipality and make use of the local welfare system. I hope the study will help to bridge the perceived divide between urban and rural areas, says Elin Slätmo. Errata to the map Second Homes in 2017 (p.13 in the report): The statement “In total, there are 67 secondary homes per 1000 inhabitants in the Nordic Countries.” Should be “ In total, there are 65 secondary homes per 1000 inhabitants in the Nordic Countries.”
Transition to a bioeconomy in Northwest Russia – current potential and challenges
The development of a bioeconomy is at the forefront of the national and regional agendas of many European countries. Yet, little is known about the status and the institutional and policy frameworks for bioeconomy development in Northwest Russia. This policy brief aims at increasing the understanding of the opportunities and challenges for bioeconomy development in Northwest Russia by drawing upon lessons learned from bioeconomy case studies in the Republic of Karelia, Murmansk and Arkhangelsk oblasts.
Transition to a bioeconomy in Northwest Russia: regional cases of the Republic of Karelia and Murmansk oblast
The development of a bioeconomy is at the forefront of the national and regional agendas of many European countries given not only its potential to counter climate change through replacing goods and services currently produced using fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources, but also the new economic activities in and around the rural regions it stimulates. However, there is relatively little known about the status and institutional and policy frameworks for bioeconomy development in Northwest Russia. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the status of and institutional framework for a bioeconomy in the Republic of Karelia and Murmansk oblast. The study identifies some of the main support mechanisms and incentives, as well as the potential and challenges, for bioeconomy development in these regions today and in the future. This study, which was financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2018–2019, Kicking off the Bioeconomy in the North, draws upon the lessons learned from the study financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2018, ‘Forest and Waste-based Bioeconomy in the Arkhangelsk region’.
Statistikhäfte för Gränsregionen Innlandet-Dalarna
Det regionale samarbeidet mellom Hedmark og Dalarna ble innledet i 2007 med et forprosjekt og deretter med Interregprosjektet TRUST Hedmark- Dalarna som ble avsluttet i 2012. Statistikkheftet beskriver ulike aspekter ved denne store grenseregionen og gjennom statistikken kan man også få kunnskap som kan være til nytte i plan- og utviklingsarbeidet over nasjonsgrensen. Vi håper at denne fakta- og forskningsbaserte kunnskap kan bidra til et intensivert samarbeide over grensen innenfor samfunns- og næringsutvikling med vekt på de områder der grenseoverskridende samarbeid vil skape en stor merverdi. Vi håper at statistikkheftet kan brukes av aktører som er opptatt av utviklingsarbeid og arbeid med å skape forutsetninger for tilvekst og regional utvikling. Dette kan være regionale myndigheter og kommunene i grenseregionen, men også næringslivet og interesserte innbyggere.
Atlas of population, society and economy in the Arctic
The Atlas of Population, Society and Economy in the Arctic provides an in-depth overview of the changes that are affecting populations in the circumpolar North. Continuous environmental, economic and social changes are currently underway in the Arctic regions. Global warming, for example, is challenging traditional livelihoods, accessibility and economic activities. The atlas presents a collection of standardised indicators that illustrate the state of the Arctic regions focusing on demography, society, economy, production, accessibility and infrastructure as well as physical conditions and resources in the Arctic. As part of Nunataryuk’s research, this working paper examines the environmental challenges related to permafrost by combining geographical data with demographic data in order to describe coastal and inland settlements. Permafrost thaw is a challenge for many Arctic communities, as it has an impact on infrastructure, economy and the health of Arctic populations.
Nordic Population in 2040 – Executive summary
How strong is the urbanization trend in the Nordics in the long haul? Will the rural areas be depopulated by 2040? This is the executive summary of the report The Nordic Population in 2040 – Analysis of past and future demographic trends. The findings show that the rural areas in the Nordic region face several demographic challenges, but at the same time the rural future does not seem as grim as often predicted. The population and the working age population will continue to grow in the Nordic Region, but the fastest growth will occur in the old-age dependency ratio challenging the Nordic welfare model with a growing group of pensioners compared to the working age population. The report is divided into three sections: projections of total urban and rural populations, projections of the age structure of the population, and projections of the working age populations. If the expected future differs from what is desired, policy interventions can be designed and implemented to attempt to achieve the desired population outcome. This research examines the future size and age composition of the populations in the Nordic region at the national, regional, and municipal levels. The national statistical offices of all the Nordic countries and autonomous areas regularly produce projections of their populations which differ in detail, assumptions, and length of the projection period. To allow comparison across the Nordic regions, a typology of urban and rural regions is used with five different types of regions 1) predominantly urban regions, 2) intermediate regions, close to a city 3) intermediate regions, remote 4) predominantly rural regions, close to a city and 5) predominantly rural regions, remote. This classification is adopted from the OECD and is used throughout the report. In depth analysis can be found in the original report The Nordic Population in 2040…
The value of high-speed trains in intermediate regions
A cross-border perspective along the Oslo-Stockholm corridor. This policy brief examines how small and medium-sized (SMS) cities can benefit from the introduction of a high-speed train connection. Our results indicate that such transport infrastructure projects might not be the best fit for all SMS cities, even though they can contribute to local urban developments, especially in medium-sized cities. The background information document offers a more detailed view upon the researched areas and summarises the main elements from the workshops and interviews with local stakeholders. These discussions aimed at answering the following question in a number of medium- and small-sized cities in Värmland–Østfold that might be connected to the future HST corridor between Oslo and Stockholm: ‘What could be the effects of the introduction of a faster train service between Oslo and Stockholm on the urban development in your municipality?’ More precisely, the discussions focused on urban and territorial developments in the selected municipalities (Arvika, Askim, Karlstad, Kristinehamn, Lillestrøm and Årjäng).
Social and Economic Resilience in the Bothnian Arc Cross-Border Region
What global and local risks and long-term challenges is the Bothnian Arc cross-border area exposed to? And how can societies and economies in this area anticipate and respond to them to ensure resilient long-term development paths? This report provides a background overview on resilience and the methodology applied. Moreover, the report provides a snapshot of resilience situation in the Bothnian Arc. The data and information gathered was collected by interviewing local people both in Swedish and Finnish sides. The report is written by Nordregio together with the Bothnian Arc association on behalf of the Nordic Thematic Group on Innovative and Resilient regions, set by the Nordic Council of Ministers from 2017 to 2020.
Is the coast clear? The role of digitalisation for enabling blue growth in the cross-border region of Svinesund
The study explores what role digitalisation plays in the context of business development and growth in the marine sector in the Svinesund area; the different challenges and opportunities that surface in this context; and what role the Svinesund mega-region may play for the future of blue growth. Digitalisation is impacting various facets of society and holds great potential in radically changing the ways businesses are operating. Despite these radical changes, little has been said about the impact of digitalisation on micro-, small and medium sized businesses within the marine sector. To close this gap, this complimentary report, Is the coast clear? The role of digitalisation for enabling blue growth in the cross-border region of Svinesund is a follow-up study of Randal and Berlina’s report Governing the digital transition in Nordic regions: The human element (2019). The latter report was written on behalf of the Nordic thematic group for innovative and resilient regions 2017–2020, under the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Committee of Civil Servants for Regional Affairs. The present, complimentary study on digitalisation and blue growth has been developed on behalf of the Nordic thematic working group’s member Svinesundskommittén (The Svinesund committee).
Implementing Smart Specialisation strategies in Nordic regions
This policy brief explores the adoption of Smart Specialisation (S3) strategies in the Nordic Region. S3 as a policy tool has quickly been adopted across the European Union and in the Nordic countries, but the implementation of S3 is not uniformly adopted. What is the added value of smart specialisation implementation in Nordic regions? Strengthened governance structures, clear ownership to S3 processes, and understanding S3 as a process in its own right are some of our key recommendations. We also explore if there is a Nordic Model of S3; A highly compatible Nordic innovation environment may suggest a favourable positioning for maximising the added value of S3 in Nordic regions. This research is part of the work of the Nordic Thematic Group on Innovative and Resilient Regions established by the Nordic Council of Ministers.
Governing the Digital Transition in the Nordic Regions
The Nordic countries are often positioned as digital front-runners in the European and global contexts. Digitalisation is changing the nature of business, jobs and provision of public services. Rapid digitalisation and technological change require governments and organisations to introduce proactive measures to embrace new digitalisation opportunities. How to create an enabling environment for digital transformation at the local, regional, national and Nordic levels? This policy brief explores the local and regional dimension of digital transformation. It examines the opportunities and challenges that Nordic regions are facing related to digitalisation, and highlights some lessons learned from five Nordic regions implementing digitalisation agendas. It also sets out key recommendations for creating an enabling environment for digitalisation work at different governance levels. This research is part of the work of the Nordic Thematic Group on Innovative and Resilient Regions established by the Nordic Council of Ministers.
Ålands Utvärderarnas fördjupade årsrapport för 2018
Ålands landsbygdsutvecklingsprogram perioden 2014-2020 Utvärderingens syfte är att förbättra kvaliteten, effektiviteten och måluppfyllelsen för det åländska landsbygdsutvecklingsprogrammets 2014-2020 (Ålands landskapsregering, 2017) genomförande. Programmets målsättning är att bidra till en mer hållbar ekonomisk och smart utveckling som fokuserar på produktivitet och miljömässig hållbarhet och skall ge lönsamma och livskraftiga lantbruksföretag, ett aktivt lantbruk och en attraktiv landsbygd. Landsbygdsprogrammet för Åland omfattar totalt en budget uppgående till 58,5 miljoner euro, varav EU delfinansierar programmet med 20,7 miljoner euro.
Ålands strukturfondsprogram 2014–2020 Utvärderarnas andra delrapport
Den här rapporten innehåller andra delrapport per 31.12.2018 av utvärderingen av de europeiska regional- och socialfondernas gemensamma operativa program på Åland för perioden 2014–2020. Bakom programmet står två olika EU-fonder med delvis olika krav på de av programmet (med-) finansierade verksamheterna. De förenas dock i ambitionen att i enlighet med Unionens övergripande mål om smart och hållbar tillväxt för alla utveckla och stärka företagande, innovationskapacitet, social integration, arbetsmarknad och miljö på Åland.
Enabling vulnerable youth in rural areas not in education, employment or training
This report concludes work within the Nordic Thematic Group on Sustainable Rural Regional Development as part of the Nordic Co-operation Programme on Regional Development 2017–2021. The working title of the project is “A rural perspective on spatial disparities of education and employment outcomes”. Part of the curiosity that drove this project was to understand better the situation of vulnerable and marginalized youth in rural areas of Norden, which arose from the Nordic Arctic Working Group 2013–2017 where we identified some local and regional processes with serious mismatch problems relating to youth education and validity in the local and regional labour market. Placing YOUTH IN FOCUS is response to the Nordic Council of Minister’s cross-sectional strategy on Children and Youth 2016–2022 as well as the Nordic Co-operation Programme for Regional Development and Planning 2017–2021. It stresses the importance of promoting social sustainability in relation to regional development. The Icelandic chair in 2019 has young people as one of three main priorities. It relates to SDG4, the fourth UN sustainable development goal, in that young people should have a key role in achieving the goal, they should be encouraged to actively participate in society and should have access to important decisions shaping the future (Norræna ráðherranefndin, 2018). Furthermore, the project also relates strongly to both European, Nordic and in some cases national policy emphasis on inclusive labour markets for youth with reduced functional capacities. This report concludes work within the Nordic Thematic Group on Sustainable Rural Regional Development as part of the Nordic Co-operation Programme on Regional Development 2017–2020. The working title of the project is “A rural perspective on spatial disparities of education and employment outcomes”.
The Nordic Population 2040 – Analysis of Past and future demographic trends
The purpose of this project is to provide policy makers at the national, regional, and municipal levels an idea of what the size, composition, and geographic distribution of the rural populations in the Nordic countries might look like in 2040. It does this by compiling the population projections done by the national statistical offices of the Nordic countries to examine the size, regional concentration, age distribution, and other characteristics of the rural populations in the Nordic countries in the future. The future size of the both the urban and rural populations are examined to provide context for the expected population trends in rural areas.A separate policy brief is available which summarizes the key findings. This paper is one output of the 2017 to 2020 Nordic Thematic Group for Sustainable Rural Development.
Smart Specialisation in the Baltic Sea Region
-Good practices from the Bio-, Circular- and Digital Innovation project BSR Stars S3 This policy brief summarizes the key activities and learnings of the BSR Stars S3 – Smart Specialisation through Cross-sectoral Bio-, Circular- and Digital Ecosystems project 2016-2019. The project focused on how to engage business and research actors in the implementation of smart specialisation. This information is essential for public and private sector actors looking for new ways to improve regional innovation capacity and form inter-regional value chains within shared focus areas in the Baltic Sea Region. The BSR Stars S3 project was a three-year flagship project under the innovation policy area (PA Inno) within the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. The project was funded by the EU Interreg BSR Programme and had a total of 12 partners from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Lithuania. The Baltic Institute of Finland in Tampere was the Lead Partner of the project.
Building Economic and Social Resilience in the Nordic Regions
Building regional resilience is vital in an interconnected global economy where external events have significant impact on regional and local communities. Resilience thinking gives regions the possibility to anticipate and respond to unexpected events. This policy brief examines different types of risks and a series of factors that help building resilience in the Nordic regions. This research is part of the work of the Nordic Thematic Group on Innovative and Resilient Regions established by the Nordic Council of Ministers.
Integrating immigrants into the Nordic labour markets
Migration to the Nordic region increased strongly during the refugee crisis in 2015. On a per-capita basis, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden have taken in more asylum seekers than most other European countries. In the coming years, these refugees and subsequent newcomers have to be integrated into the Nordic labour markets, if asylum is granted. This will be an extremely challenging process. All Nordic countries are characterised by significant employment gaps between natives and foreign born, with particularly large gaps existing in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Refugees in particular are more dependent on welfare support and less likely to be employed than natives. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have analysed measures to promote employment among migrants. Nonetheless, a systematic review of how different policies influence employment rates of refugees and other migrant groups in the Nordic countries has not been available previously. A new report produced by Nordregio for the Nordic Council of Ministers now gives an overview of existing measures to integrate immigrants into the Nordic labour market including policy recommendations and outlines of best practice. The following policy briefs are excerpts from the report Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets: Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets: An Overall Perspective, by Lars Calmfors and Nora Sánchez Gassen Active labour-market policies and newly arrived immigrants, by Pernilla Andersson Joona Immigration and social insurance design, by Bernt Bratsberg, Oddbjørn Raaum and Knut Røed Education policies for adolescent immigrants, by Anders Böhlmark Wage policies and the integration of immigrants, by Simon Ek and Per Skedinger How should the integration effort be organised?, by Vibeke Jakobsen and Torben Tranæs Policies promoting higher employment for non-Western immigrant women, by Jacob Nielsen Arendt and Marie Louise Schultz-Nielsen Education efforts and the integration of immigrants, by Tuomas Pekkarinen
Policy Briefs – Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets
The following policy briefs are excerpts from the report Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets: Integrating Immigrants into the Nordic Labour Markets: An Overall Perspective, by Lars Calmfors and Nora Sánchez Gassen Active labour-market policies and newly arrived immigrants, by Pernilla Andersson Joona Immigration and social insurance design, by Bernt Bratsberg, Oddbjørn Raaum...